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SUMMARY OF DATA RATES. Thought For The Week No Question Is A Bad Question!. Key Point. WAN Physical Layer Protocols Vary Widely In Speed And Cost. LESSON OBJECTIVES.

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slide1

SUMMARY OF DATA RATES

Thought For The Week

No Question Is A Bad Question!

slide2

Key Point

WAN Physical Layer Protocols Vary Widely In Speed And Cost.

slide3

LESSON OBJECTIVES

This Lesson Summarizes the Most Popular Physical Layer Protocols That Exist for Providing Connectivity to Wide Area Network (WAN) and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Networking Environments.

  • At The End Of Lesson 2, You Should Be
  • Able To:
    • Name The Low- And High-Speed Options For
    • Physical Layer MAN/WAN Connectivity
    • Determine Which Technology Is Most
    • Appropriate For A Given Business Application
slide4

Point-To-Point Links

  • Point-To-Point Links Establish A Physical
  • Connection Between Local And Remote
  • Stations.
  • A Point-To-Point Link Provides Dedicated

Bandwidth For The Life Of The Circuit.

slide5

Analog Lines

  • LECs Offer Traditional Telecommunications
  • Services That Use Existing Telephone
  • Company Voice Network Facilities And The
  • Copper Local Loop Between A Customer
  • And Central Office (CO).
slide6

Basics Of Digital Data Speeds

  • The Building Block For Digital Services Is
  • The Digital Signal Level 0 (DS0).
  • In Every Country In The World,
  • The DS0, 64 Kbps, Is Recognized
  • As The Basic Data Rate For Digital
  • Data Transmission.

DS0

64 Kbps

slide7

Analog-To-Digital Data Conversion

  • The Most Prevalent Method Of Converting
  • Analog Signals To Digital Signals Is The
  • Process Of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM).
  • In Every Country In The World,
  • The DS0, 64 Kbps, Is Recognized
  • As The Basic Data Rate For Digital
  • Data Transmission.

DS0

64 Kbps

Building Block

slide8

Digital Data Service (DDS)

  • Dataphone Digital Service (DDS) Is Also
  • Called Digital Data Service.
  • Connections Are Made To DDS Using A

Special Box Called A Data Service Unit/

Channel Service Unit (DSU/CSU).

  • Switched-56 (SW56) Service, Enables Dial-

Up Digital Connections To Any Other

SW56 Subscriber in the Country.

slide9

Switched-56 (SW56)

  • Switched-56 (SW56) Service, Enables Dial-
  • Up Digital Connections to Any Other SW56
  • Subscriber in the Country.
slide10

High-Speed Services

  • At The Top Of The Point-To-point Ladder
  • Are The Truly High-Speed Digital Services,
  • Including:
    • Fractional T1 (FT1)
    • T1 (24 DS0 Channels, 1.544 Mbps)
    • T3 (672 DS0 Channels; 44.736 Mbps)
    • Sonet (Basic Building Block Is STS-1, Or OC-1
    • – 51.84 Mbps; Ref. Table on Page 298)
slide11

Various Data Rates And Associated Applications

  • The Physical Layer Technologies Table
  • Presents Key Physical Layer Technologies
  • Most Often Used For Connection To A
  • WAN.

Technology

Data Rate

Physical Media

Application

Home Office Connectivity to Office and Internet

Dial-up

DDS Leased Line

Switched-56

14.4-56 Kbps

56 Kbps

56 Kbps

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Small Business Low-Speed AccessOffice-to-Office ConnectivityInternet Connectivity

Small Business Low-Speed AccessOffice-to-Office ConnectivityInternet ConnectivityLink Backup

slide12

Various Data Rates And Associated Applications

Technology

Data Rate

Physical Media

Application

Small to Medium BusinessModerate-level SpeedInternet Access

Fractional T1

Satellite (Direct PC)

T1

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Airwaves

64 to 768 Kbps

400 Kbpsdownstream33.6 Kbpsupstream

Small Business with Moderate-level SpeedInternet Access

Medium BusinessInternet Access

Point-to-Point LAN Connectivity

64 Kbps to 1.544 Mbps

Low-Grade Twisted PairOptical FiberMicrowave

slide13

Various Data Rates And Associated Applications

Technology

Data Rate

Physical Media

Application

Medium BusinessInternet Access Point-to-Point LAN Connectivity

E1

ADSL

Cable Modem

Low-Grade Twisted PairOptical Fiber

64 Kbps to2,048 Mbps

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Low-Grade Twisted Pair

Medium BusinessHigh-Speed Home Internet Access

Medium BusinessHigh-Speed Home Internet Access

512 Kbps to 52 Mbps

Coaxial Cable

slide14

Various Data Rates And Associated Applications

Technology

Data Rate

Physical Media

Application

Large BusinessInternet Access ISP Backbone Access

E3

T3

OC-1

Twisted Pair Fiber Optical Microwave

34.368 Mbps

45 Mbps

Twisted Pair Fiber Optical Microwave

Large BusinessInternet Access ISP Backbone Access

Backbone, Campus Internet ISP

51.48 Mbps

Fiber Optical Cable

slide15

Various Data Rates And Associated Applications

Technology

Data Rate

Physical Media

Application

Large BusinessInternet Access ISP Backbone Access

E3

T3

OC-1

Twisted Pair Fiber Optical Microwave

34.368 Mbps

45 Mbps

Twisted Pair Fiber Optical Microwave

Large BusinessInternet Access ISP Backbone Access

Backbone, Campus Internet ISP

51.48 Mbps

Fiber Optical Cable

slide16

T1 System

  • A T-1 Contains24 64-Kbps Channels
      • 24 x 64 Kbps = 1,536 Kbps
      • A T-1 Has a Data Rate of 1,544 Kbps (1.544 Mbps)
  • Why Is There An 8,000 bps
  • Difference Between What
  • We Believe That The T-1
  • Data Rate Is And The
  • Actual Data Rate Of 24, 64
  • Kbps Channels?
slide17

T1 System - Continued

. . .

. . .

F

Octet 2

Octet 24

F

Octet 1

Channel 1

Channel 2

5.18 sec

125 sec

193 bit

Framing bit

  • 8 b/Channel/Frame X 24
  • Channels = 192 bits.
  • Thus The Output bit rate is
  • 193 X 8,000 = 1.544 Mbps.
slide18

Bandwidth – Analog Transmission

  • Bandwidth Is The Difference Between The
  • Highest And Lowest Frequencies That Can
  • Be Transmitted Across A Transmission
  • Line Or Through A Network.
  • Bandwidth Is Measured In Hertz (Hz) For

Analog Networks.

slide19

Bandwidth –Digital Transmission

  • Bandwidth Is Measured In Bits Per Second

(bps) For Digital Networks.

slide20

Application Bandwidth

  • Different Types Of Applications Require
  • Different Bandwidths For Effective Use.
slide21

Bandwidth

  • The Greater The Range Of Frequencies A

Medium Can Handle, The Greater Its

Information-Carrying Capacity.

slide22

Multiplexers and Subscriber Lines

3000 Ft

Repeater

T1

T1

Mux

CSU

~ 6,000 Ft In Loop

24 DS-0

Network Interface

T1

Repeater

Central Office

Repeater

T1

T1

Office Repeater Bay

Frame

3000 Ft

slide23

Traffic Carried By T1 System

  • Digital Voice At 64, 32, or 16 Kbps on DS-1 Channels
  • Digital Data At 56 Kbps, or Multiples Of 64 Kbps
  • Subrate Data At 2.4 4.8, 9.6, Or 19.2 Kbps On DS-1
  • Channels
slide24

Traffic Carried By T1 System

  • To Accommodate These Signals On DS-1 Lines Requires A
  • Range O Multiplexers. Some Of Them Are:
    • M24: Original T-1 System
    • M44: 44 Voice Channels That Are Converted To 44,
    • 32-Kbps Voice Channels.
    • They Occupy 22 DS-0
    • Channels.
    • The Remaining 2 DS-0s
    • Are Used For Common
    • Channel Signaling.
slide25

Traffic Carried By T1 System

  • Continued:
    • M48: 48 Voice Channels That Are Converted To 48,
    • M88: 88 Voice Channels That Are Converted To 88,
    • 16-Kbps Voice Channels.
    • They Occupy 22 DS-0
    • Channels.
    • The Remaining 2 DS-0s
    • Are Used For Common
    • Channel Signaling.