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Globalising Knowledge

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  1. Globalising Knowledge

  2. Local and global

  3. Disaggregation of supply chains Disaggregation of knowledge production

  4. “a new geography of science”Leadbeater and Wilsdon Knowledge production is globalising, but … Advantages of macroeconomic stability, a strong research and skills base and supporting environment – UK DTI 2006 Tata’s ‘global network’ of innovation labs - mainly India, Europe and US “Island’s of excellence in India and China such as Tsinghua University in Beijing and the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore” Sainsbury 2007 “The New Argonauts” Saxenian 2006 “An ecosystem that nurtures innovation” Patton and Kenney 2005

  5. 40 megaregions - 86% of patented innovations Richard Florida 2008

  6. Ramlogan, Mina, et al 2007 Interventional cardiology network

  7. A new Topography Legion 14 Hilltops and valleys

  8. Geography and the nature of knowledge • 3 epistemologies: • cognitivism • connectionism • autopoiesis Leading to different approaches to knowledge production and management

  9. Cognitivism The truth is out there We are all positivists and representationalism dominates

  10. Connectionism Organisations process information differently We are still positivists But Kuhn is worrying us…

  11. Autopoietic Constructivism appears

  12. “We can know more than we tell” Polanyi 1984

  13. Representationalism

  14. Constructivism

  15. 1 Codified sources Manuals, online sources etc Chinese software engineers Yan 2006 Questions Difficult to formulate Team share Tacit knowledge 2 Collective discussions and advice seeking – walk over to the next cubicle 3 Online communities of practice 4 Personal links ‘Expensive’ to call in favours

  16. Social networks Informal versus formal The practice of everday life Tactics and strategy Michel de Certau 1984 ICI informal ‘acts’ formal ‘limits’ Allen, James et al 2007 Esprit – EU IT collaboration – informal conflicts with formal Macdonald and Piekkari 2005

  17. Collaborative R&D • OECD 2007 • – groups – vital units of knowledge creation • diversification of sources of knowledge through collaboration • in cutting edge nano- and bio-science Greater emphasis on social networks, new search techniques and expertise location Greater attention to adding context to content and the group Prusack and Weiss 2007 Procter and Gamble – open source innovation Huston 2006

  18. Universities increasingly seen as major agents of economic growth Sainsbury 2007 R&D spend increasing globally (7.5% globally 2004-5) Private research funding is flat Only 5% of UK research funding is from industry – UUK Private knowledge producers globalising their operations Eg Shell Global or Southwest Research Institute office in Beijing and alliance in France R&D Magazine 2007

  19. Universities as primary rather than secondary institutions in organisational infrastructure of modern economies – “leading in the knowledge economy” Freedman 2008, NESTA 2008 Etzkovith and Klofsten 2005

  20. Universities start at the beginning of network failure Fuller 2001 Tata Consultancy Services value university links for their longterm view and non-partisan standpoint TCS 2007 Universities as gateways and processors of outside knowledge NESTA

  21. How can universities play a bigger role in knowledge production? • Create their own hilltop locations? • Eg Cambridge….. • implant research facilities at hilltop • locations? • encourage more social contact of • researchers and encourage social • skills in researchers • encourage and ‘licence’ successful • informal networks • blend technology with social contact • be ‘universities’ – use unique attributes

  22. Thank you – T.Gore@gre.ac.uk