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Chapter 1 Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction

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Chapter 1 Introduction

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  1. Chapter 1Introduction • Historical background • Five schools of behaviorism

  2. Defining Learning • a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from experience. • (behavior: any activity that can be either directly or indirectly observed)

  3. Two Basic Types of Learning • Classical conditioning • Process by which an inborn, involuntary behavior is produced in new situations

  4. Two Basic Types of Learning • Operant conditioning • Strengthening or weakening of a voluntary behavior because of its consequences Food Scolding Behavior Increases or decreases Behavior (dog sits) Nothing Praise Reinforcers

  5. Skinner Box (Conditioning Box)

  6. Sniffy the Virtual Rat

  7. Historical Background • Aristotle (382-322 BC) • Law of similarity • Law of contrast • Law of contiguity • Law of frequency

  8. Historical Background • Descartes • Mind-body dualism • British empiricists • Tabula rasa

  9. Historical Background • Structuralism • Introspection • Functionalism

  10. Clever Hans, the clever horse • von Osten’s goal: prove humans and animals have similar mental processes

  11. Clever Hans, the clever horse An Investigation • Used experimental approach • 2 groups of questioners • Group 1 knew the answers • Group 2 did not know the answers • Hans only answered correctly when questionersknew the answers

  12. Clever Hans, the clever horse An Investigation • Conclusion: • Hans was receiving some type of information from questioners • Hans had been unintentionally conditioned by his owner • Impact: • Scientists more skeptical of mental processes in animals But… • Provided proof that animals were capable of learning

  13. Historical Background • Behaviorism • Watson • 1913: Watson declared war • Dealt solely with observable behavior • Rejected mentalistic concepts • Goal: prediction and control of behavior • 1924: Watsonian behaviorism preeminent in US • Law of parsimony

  14. Watson’s Life (1878-1958) • 1920: Scandal • Affair with student Rosalie Rayner • Watson forced to resign • Moved into advertising

  15. Five schools of behaviorism • Watsonian behaviorism • Neobehaviorism: Hull • Intervening variables • Cognitive Neobehaviorism: Tolman • Cognitive map • Latent learning • Social Learning Theory: Bandura • Reciprocal determinism • Radical Behaviorism: Skinner