Navpreet Singh CS102 COMPUTER SYSTEM MANAGEMENT Computer Centre Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur Kanpur INDIA (Ph : 2597371, Email : firstname.lastname@example.org)
About Myself About Myself • I am Principal Computer Engineer at IIT Kanpur and I manage the Campus Network and Internet Services of IITK. • IIT Kanpur has one of the largest networks in the country. • IITK Campus Network now has more than 12000 nodes providing connectivity to more than 6000 users in Academic Departments, Student Hostels and Residences. • IITK has 110 Mbps Internet Connectivity. • All application servers (Mail, DNS, Proxy Caching, Web etc.) are maintainedin-house. • B.Tech (1990) and M.Tech (1996) from IIT Kanpur • Working in IIT Kanpur for more than 16 years
Course Objective Course Objective The course will cover: • Introduction to Computer Hardware & Software, Operating Systems, Computer Networks and Internet. • Develop a conceptual understanding of PC internals, Computing Environment, Computer Networks and Internet. • Enable the students to diagnose and troubleshoot Computer Hardware and Software problems.
Course Outline Course Outline There will be thirteen Lectures and associated Lab Assignments. • The lecture slides, assignments and references are available on the course website: http://home.iitk.ac.in/~navi/iiitdcourse • All the Lectures will be 1.5 hours and will be in the form of recorded presentations. • The Assignments will be take home to be completed and submitted in the next lecture class.
Course Content Lecture Topics • Lecture 1 & 2: Basic components of a Computer System: • CPU; Memory; Disk Storage • Input/Output units (Keyboard, Mouse, Monitor; CD/DVD Drives, Speaker/Microphone etc) • Motherboard; Power Supply; Network Interface • Peripherals:- function of each component • Assembly/Disassembly; Troubleshooting • Lecture 3 & 4: Operating System and Application Software: • Hardware and Software • Systems Software and Application Software • Features of a widely used operating environment such as MS WINDOWS, UNIX or LINUX • Comparison of operating environments; Various File Systems • Application Software and APIs • Troubleshooting
Course Content Lecture Topics • Lecture 5 & 6: UNIX/LINUX: • Introduction to UNIX Architecture • UNIX File System and Access Control • UNIX Commands • Troubleshooting • Lecture 7 & 8: Computer Networking: • Introduction to Computer Networks and Network Applications • Components of a Network (Physical Media, Switch, Router etc.) • IP addressing; Introduction to TCP/IP • Wireless Networks • Network Architecture (Campus, Residential and Corporate Networks) • Troubleshooting
Course Content Lecture Topics • Lecture 9: Computing Environment: • Client Server Architecture • Desktops, Works Stations, Servers & Clusters • Diskless Clients • Storage and Backup • Data Center Setup • Lecture 10 & 11: Internet and Internet Applications: • Internet Architecture • How the Web works • Google Architecture • Working of DNS, Email, WWW, Proxy • Troubleshooting
Course Content Lecture Topics • Lecture 12 & 13: Computer and Network Security • Security Threats (Hacking, DoS attacks, Mail Spam, Malware, Phishing etc.) • Firewall • Unified Threat Management • Wireless security
Course Content Assignment Topics • There will be thirteen take home assignments • All the assignments have been designed to give you hands on experience on the topics being covered in the lectures. • You are expected to use your personal laptop to do the assignments • References which will be helpful in the assignments will be provided in the course website.
Grading Grading Guidelines • Two Exam: 20% each • Lab Assignment: 60% (5% each, best of 12)
Course References References • The course slides, assignments and references will be available at http://home.iitk.ac.in/~navi/iiitdcourse • Online on the Web • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Components Computing Infrastructure Components • Servers • Clients • LAN • Internet Connectivity • Software • Storage • Backup • Security Computation Integration is the Key ! Network DataManagement
Computer Today’s Computer
Computer Computer Model • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes the computer program • Output: monitor, printer, fax machine • Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape
Components Computer Components
Components Computer Components • CPU • Memory • Hard Disk • Mother Board • CD/DVD Drives • Adaptors • Power Supply • Display • Keyboard • Mouse • Network Interface • I/O ports
CPU CPU • CPU – Central Processing Unit (Microprocessor) consists of three parts: • Control Unit • Execute programs/instructions: the machine language • Move data from one memory location to another • Communicate between other parts of a PC • Arithmetic Logic Unit • Arithmetic operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide • Logic operations: and, or, xor • Floating point operations: real number manipulation • Registers
CPU Processor Architecture
CPU CPU • CPU speed is influenced by several factors: • Clock speed: Megahertz, Gigahertz • Word size : 32-bit or 64-bit word sizes • Cache: Level 1, Level 2 caches • Instruction set size • Single Core/Multi Core
CPU Multi-Core Processor Architecture
CPU CPU • Desktop Processor: Intel (Pentium) Core 2 Duo/Quad, AMD Athelon (Dual/Quad Core) • Mobile Processor: Intel (Centrino 2) Core 2 Duo, AMD Turion (Dual Core) • Server Processor: Intel Xeon Quad Core, AMD Optron Quad Core, RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer): IBM Power PC, SUN SPARC .. • Atom Processor
Memory MEMORY • ROM: For BIOS (Basic Input Output System) • CMOS RAM: Battery-backed memory used to store system specific parameters required by the system BIOS to boot. It also stores the system clock information. • RAM: Dynamic RAM and used for storing Data and programs which disappear after task completed or power turned off • Size: ex. 512MB, 2 GB .. • Speed: ex. 533MHz, 667 MHz .. • Type: ex. DDR2/3 SDRAM (Double Data Rate Synchronous RAM) • Packaging: DIMM, SIMM… • Cache: Static RAM attached to the CPU and used for storing current data. L1, L2, L3 Cache
Hard Disk HARD DISK • Magnetic storage device. It stores data by magnetizing particles on a disk. • Used to store operating system, application software, utilities and data. • Metal, plastic, or glass platter(s) • 2 magnetic surfaces/platter • 1 or more platters per spindle • 3,600 – 15,000 rpm • 1 head/platter • Head(s) move in and out
Hard Disk HOW DATA IS ORGANIZED ONDISK • Tracks- • Circular areas of the disk • Length of a track one circumference of disk • Over 1000 on a hard disk • Data first written to outer most track • Sectors- • Divides tracks sections • Cylinders- • Logical groupings of the same track on each disk surface in a disk unit • Clusters- • Groups of sectors used by operating system • 64 sectors in one cluster • Data stored in blocks (pages) of .5 to 8 KB
Hard Disk HARD DISK • IDE: Obsolete, also called PATA (Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment ), I/O Rate: 16 MB/s originally later 33, 66, 100 and 133 MB/s , • SATA (Serial ATA): Used in Desktops/Laptops, I/O Rate: 1.5/3 Gbps, 5400/7200 RPM • SCSI (Small Computer System Interface ): Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 160/320 MB/s • SAS (Serial Attached SCSI ): Used in Servers, 10/15K RPM, I/O Rate: 3 Gbps • FC (Fiber Channel): I/O Rate 4 Gbps, Expensive and used in Storage • iSCSI: I/O Rate 4 Gbps, Expensive and used in Storage • Solid State Drive: non-volatile flash memory
Hard Disk HARD DISK • Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. • Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. • High-level format: defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.