工程硕士英语考前辅导 • 阅读理解 （2） • 典型题型详解
第二份试卷答案 • 1~10: BACBA AADAB • 11~20: BDCBA CDCCB • 21~30: BCBAD BDDAC • 31~40: BDCCD BACBA • 41~50: DBDCD BDCCB
典型题型详解 • 主旨大意题 • 事实细节题 • 词汇题 • 推理题 • 作者观点题
主旨大意题 考点： 文章或段落的主要观点、中心思想或大意。 出题分布点： 难度较低的可能出现在首尾句或文章的首尾 段； 而难度较高的在解题时需要读懂全文才能归 纳出。
Example One: • （statement / topic sentence) • In the past, America’s homeless made important contributions to society. • (supporting details) • Homeless men served as wilderness scouts to blaze the trails for the first pioneers. Later, hobos cut timber, worked in mines, did farm work, laid railroad tracks, and built towns. Traveling freely from town to town, they made up a flexible work force, one available to do whatever work was needed at any particular time.
Example Two: • Eskimos begin building an igloo (拱形圆顶小屋)by cutting blocks of ice from well-packed snow. The tops are cut at a slight angle, so when they are piled in a circle, they curve inward and form a dome. When the igloo is completed, a door is carved out. The final step is to cut a tunnel entrance, with a slight bend to reduce the flow of cold air. In this simple manner, Eskimos build igloos from solid ice.
Explanation: • 第一段落的第一个句子表达了该段的主题思想，即：过去美国的流浪者对社会作出了重大的贡献。第二句到第四句则列举了流浪者对社会所作出的重大贡献。 • 第二段落的最后一个句子表达了该段大意，即：爱斯基摩人以这种简单的方法， 用坚厚雪块砌成了（拱形圆顶）小屋。而这一段落从第一句至第四句都对简单的建屋方法进行了描述。
Example three: • The Roman emperor Nero was probably behind some of the earliest frozen desserts. He had snow brought to him from nearby mountains to cool his wine cellar. Historians believe that the snow was also mixed with fruit juices and honey. It wasn’t until the 1200s, however, that the first frozen dessert made with milk reached Europe. It was introduced by Marco Polo, who brought the recipe from the orient.
Questions: • Which of the following best summarizes themain idea of the paragraph? A) Some of the earliest known frozen desserts were made for Nero. B) The history of frozen desserts was influenced by Nero and Marco Polo. C) A frozen dessert in ancient Rome consisted of snow, fruit, juices and honey. D) There are many delicious and healthful frozen desserts.
解题技巧： • 根据文章其它四个题目的正确选项，最后作答。 • 如果仍无把握， 可按下例顺序甄别： • 文章的句首（后面有无紧跟的转折连词however, on the other hand, nevertheless, but …）或尾句； • 文中重复的信息﹑带总结性的标志词（in short, in my opinion, therefore …）； • 排除太泛﹑太窄﹑太绝对以及内容具有相对性﹑概括性﹑抽象性的选项作为答案。
Example four: • Americans spend some $2.5 million each year to repair termite (白蚁) damage to their homes. However, much of that money could have been saved if a few anti-termite precautions were observed. First of all, firewood, a favorite snack of termites, should be stored on a metal platform well away from the house. In addition, fences, playhouses, and other wooden structures that touch the soil should be pretreated with a protective coating. Another precaution is to remove any tree stumps (树桩) near the home.
Questions: • What’s the main idea of this paragraph? A. To prevent termite damage, a metal platform should be used to store firewood and a favorite snack of termites. B. Americans wasted a lot of money since they fail to realize the importance of anti-termite precautions. C. It took Americans $2.5 million per year to repair termite damage to their home. D. Anti-termite precautions.
Explanation: 答案：B • (因为however, but, nevertheless, although这些词表示转折和强调，其前面的句子相当于过渡句，其后面的句子往往是作者强调的重点。) • 先排除A：并非讲花多少钱来预防白蚁对住所的破坏。 • 选择项C太窄，而选择项 D 则太泛。 • 选项B中 wasted 即原文中 could have been saved。 • 选项B中fail to realize the importance of…即原文中if a few anti-termite precautions were observed。
Example five: • Every year is reported that some 35,000 Americans have committed suicide. • The actual number is probably higher. Many • people who attempt or succeed at suicide • could have been helped to regain their • desire to live. It is important for those • around them to recognize the warning sighs • of a potential suicide.
To be continued… • Such signs include, first of all, severe depression and withdrawal, often combined with the inability to sleep or eat. Extreme mood swings, from joy to deep depression, are also danger signs. In addition, suicidal people may begin giving away valued belongings. Last, any life crisis, such as the death of a loved one or the loss of a job, may make a potentially suicidal person feel that he or she can’t go on.
Questions: • What has been discussed in the passage? A. The number of American suicides is extremely high. B. Recognition of the warning signs of a potential suicide. C. Many suicidal people lost their lives since people around them ignore the warning signs. D. How to help people to avoid suicide.
Explanation: • Key: C • 从文中Many people who attempt or succeed at suicide could have been helped to regain their desire to live 及随后提到的 items of the warning sighs of a potential suicide 可确定该选项。 • 选择项A，B，和D 的内容则太泛或太片面。
练一练 Try to locate the topic sentence/main idea of the following passages. • There is a false idea that lemmings, small mouse-like creatures that live in northern regions, often commit suicide. The truth is,however, that lemmings end their lives by accident. Normally they live quietly in underground nests feeding on roots and moss. But every few years the lemming population grows so large that the food supply becomes too small to feed them all.
Process … • Then all the lemmings leave their nests • and go in search of food. As they travel, the • lemmings eat everything in their path. After • traveling for weeks, they reach the shore— • but they don’t stop there. Still searching for • food, the tiny rodents plunge into the ocean • and begin swimming. In a short time, the • little creatures become exhausted and drown.
Explanation: • 第二个句子为主题句，由转折词however引出。 • 该段主题是旅鼠的死亡并非像人们所认为的那样是自杀，纯属偶然。 • 作者分别用了表示时间的词then, as, after, in a short time描述了旅鼠死亡的过程。
再试一试 • Psychologists believe that whenpeople withhold feelings, they can develop physical problems such as ulcers（溃疡）, high blood pressure, and heart disease, as well as psychological problems such as stress-related neuroses神经机能病 and psychosis精神变态. Moreoverpeople who withhold feelings are often perceived as cold, undemonstrative, and not much fun to be around.
Which sentence best expresses the main idea of the paragraph? A) Withholding negative feelings may lead to physical problems. B) Withholding negative feelings may lead to psychological problems. C) Withholding positive feelings can make one seem cold. D) Withholding feelings has several disadvantages.
Explanation: • Key: D • 借助于连词as well as, moreover可归纳出该段主题 • 选项A，B，C都不能概括该段大意。
事实细节题 • 考点：对某句某段中具体信息的理解。 • 出题分布点：在文章的列举、数字、引用 之处。
Example One：（easy one) • “Debbie’s tuning you out to protect herself. • Think about it,” the social worker said, “When • does she do it? When you scold her or criticize • her? When the other children argue with her? • These things hurt her so much that she can’t • cope with them. But if she can’t see you or hear • you, then you can’t hurt her like that any more. • So she withdraws. It’s a defense mechanism— • the Look she uses to keep from being hurt by other • people.”
Questions: • According to the social worker, Debbie used “The Look” ＿ ＿ ＿. A) to protect herself B) to hurt herself C) until she was seen D) from infancy
Example Two：(easy one) • Lidai Diwang Miao underwent two periods of renovation in the Qing Dynasty, during the reigns of emperors Yongzheng and Qianlong. From 1929 until early 2000, it was part of Beijing No. 159 Middle School.
Questions: • How long has Lidai Diwang Miao been in part of a middle school in Beijing? A) 470 years B) 159 years C) 71 years D) 188 years
Explanation: • Key: A (Example One) • 答案直接来自句子It’s a defense mechanism—The Look she uses to keep from being hurt by other people。 • Key: C (Example Two) • 从短语 from 1929 until early 2000可以计算出71 年。
细节题一般分为两大类: • 词语细节题：其答案几乎可直接从短文中 • 获得。 • 隐含细节题： • 从题干部分很难直接找到与原文对应的词语和表达方式，或其答案间接地隐含在文字表达中；有时答案还可能是原文中某一事实的原因、结果、前提等。这类题需要考生将选项仔细推敲而定。
Example： • However，a powerful argument for the Health Service is that many people are able to receive expensive treatment which they could never afford themselves. Sometimes this free treatment is abused and people visit their doctors when they don’t really need to. Because they have so many patients, doctors cannot spend as long with each one as they would like, and some people prefer to pay for private treatment so that their doctors can give the more time. In fact, some wealthy people feel that they should pay, and so free more money for treatment to other.
Questions: • The author mentions that some wealthy people prefer to pay for private treatment because ＿. A) their doctors can give them more time leave from work B) those doctors have better medical instruments C) they might save some money for the poor D) their doctors have a stronger sense of responsibility for the patients
Explanation: • Key: C (此题属于隐含细节题) • 从题干部分和选项部分很难直接找到与原文完全对应的词语. • 其答案隐含在文字表达中：In fact, some wealthy people feel that they should pay, and so free more money for treatment to other.
细节题的提问方式及解题技巧： • A. “which”型及解题技巧 • B. “According to”型及解题技巧 • C. “数字题型”及解题技巧
“which”型及解题技巧 • 出题方式： • Which of the following…is not true/correct? Which of the following is (not)/does (not)…? 解题技巧： • 找到列举关联词(如：then, next, first…, second…, third…)，或者其它没有标志词的并列内容，根据题中的选项进行选择或排除； • 此外，根据选项特点利用扫描法也能有效提高答题速度和准确性。
Example： • Agriculture is impossible all along the thousands of miles of the north shore. The only wood is such as drifts in. Other than drift wood, the only available building materials are snow, ice, stone, and bones of animals. All of these have been used for habitations and storage places, differing in various tribes according to the requirements and skill of the workers.
Questions: • Which of the following about the construction of houses is true? A) Building materials differ from tribe to tribe. B) Building materials are the same for all the houses. C) Building materials are selected according to weather. D) Building materials are decided by skilled workers.
Explanation: • Key: A (可用排除法) • 答案出处在最后一句：All of these (building materials) have been used for habitations and storage places, differing in various tribes according to the requirements and skill of the workers. • 选项B为错误信息；选项C为无关信息；而选项D太片面。
“According to”型及解题技巧 • 出题方式：According to the passage… According to the author… 解题技巧：利用题干中的关键词，找到文中的对应词； • 在对应词周围找答案：体现中心思想或同义词替换的选项便是答案； • 内容与原句相反、部分不同或太绝对的不是答案。
Example One： • According to a conservative estimate, China • has about 100,000 private cars today. Seven • percent of urban residents have installed home • phones. The Chinese Post and • Telecommunications Ministry plans 120 million • new phone lines for the year 2000, or a phone • for every urban household. Today fax machines, • computers and mobile phones are very common • and face a booming market.
Questions: • According to a conservative estimate, ＿ ＿ ＿. A) China produces 100,000 cars every day B) there will be a mobile phone for every urban household C) there will be 120 million phone lines by the year 2000 D) seven percent of urban residents have got their private phones
Explanation: • Key: D (利用题干中的关键词，找到文中的对应词) • 答案出处在第二句： Seven percent of urban residents have installed home phones. • 选项中的got 和private phones为原文中的 installed 和 home phones 。 此为同义词替换。
Example Two： • Authoritative scholars place China’s social development at the “lower medium level” compared to the rest of the world. China has gone through several twists and turns (迂回曲折)since 1949, and many people’s lives have changed for better or worse as a result. However, today a general improvement is evident. Since 1978 in particular, many people’s life-style have improved at a greater pace than in the previous 30 years.
Questions: • From the year 1978 on, life for the majority of the Chinese people ＿ ＿ ＿. A)has changed for worse B) has gone through several twists and turns C) has been improved at much quicker pace than it was in the past D) has come to a higher level compared with that in the rest of the world
Explanation: • Key: C • 题干中虽然没有直接用according to ，但是考生可通过题干中含有其它表达“根据文章内容”意义的词句来定位出题点，读懂出题点便可顺利解题。 • 选项 A 和D 为错误信息；选项 B 的内容has gone through several twists and turns 与题干中的限定成分 From the year 1978 on不符，故也错。
“数字题型” 及解题技巧 • 数字题型是指答案为一个数字或对文中数字进行分析后获得的考题。 • 解题技巧：若有运算型的，不能选与文中相同的数据； 若为多选一， 则要一一对应找答案； 若为文中未出现的数字，则要推理后选 答案。
Example： • According to nationwide surveys of the disabled, handicapped children under 14 account for 16 percent of the total handicapped population, and they display the greatest need for rehabilitative (使恢复正常)training as they display the highest recovery rates after early therapy. Those disabled between the ages of 15 and 59 account for 44 percent, but often their disabilities are not very severe. Although they are more or less able to work, they require vocational training, “cultural education” and special employment.
Questions: • 1. Which group represents the largest percentage of disabled people in China? A) People over 60. B) Children under 14. C) Those between 15 and 59. D) People at the age of 16, 40 and 44.
Questions: • 2. The disabled people who are most likely to recover after an early treatment are ＿ ＿ ＿. A) the children under 14 B) those between 15 and 59 C) the people over 60 D) the people at the age of 16, 40 and 44
事实细节题正确选项的特点： • 体现中心思想； • 同义词替换。 • 事实细节题干扰选项的特点： • 部分正确，部分错误； • 是原文信息，但不是题目所要求的内容；符合常识，但不是文章的内容； • 明显不是文章的信息。