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Risk Assessment of Mildly Flammable Refrigerants 2012 Progress Report The Japan Society of Refrigerating and Air-Conditi PowerPoint Presentation
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Collaboration of JSRAE and SAME Okinawa Chapter. Risk Assessment of Mildly Flammable Refrigerants 2012 Progress Report The Japan Society of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning ( JSRAE ). November 22, 2013 Akio MIYARA Saga University Department of Mechanical Engineering.

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slide1

Collaboration of JSRAE and SAME Okinawa Chapter

Risk Assessment of Mildly Flammable Refrigerants

2012 Progress Report

The Japan Society of Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning (JSRAE)

November 22, 2013

Akio MIYARA

Saga University

Department of Mechanical Engineering

slide2

Contents of the report

1 Introduction

2 Legal issues with mildly flammable refrigerant 2-1 Explanation of high pressure gas safety law and legal issues with mildly flammable refrigerant 2-2 Current international trends regarding refrigerant

3 Research on safety of mildly flammable refrigerants3-1 Progress of the University of Tokyo 3-2 Research and development of low-GWP refrigerants suited to heat pump systems 3-3 Physical hazard evaluation of A2L-class refrigerants using several types of conceivable accident scenarios 3-4 Progress report by research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry, AIST 3-5 Physical hazard evaluation on explosion and combustion of A2L class refrigerants

4 Progress of the Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association (JRAIA) 4-1 Mini-split air-conditioner risk assessment SWG: The risk assessment result of the residential air-conditioner, and the study of the mini-split air-conditioner for small business use 4-2 VRFrisk assessment SWG: The 1st risk assessment of VRFsystem with A2L refrigerant and future 4-3 Chiller risk assessment SWG: Risk assessments policy of the chiller and guideline planning taking IEC60079 into consideration

5 Deregulation activities in Japan for the introduction of mobile air conditioning refrigerant R1234yf

File can be downloaded from “ http://www.jsrae.or.jp/info/2012progress_report_e.pdf ”

slide3

Background Necessary & Indispensable Technology

Comfortable life

Refrigerating

Sustainable society

Survive

Cold storage

Freezing

Cold chain

Refrigerator car

1

Vapor compression system

Food supply

Food processing

Absorption system

Medical & Biological fields

Refrigerator

Industrial process

Data center

Industrial fields

Drying

Clean room

House

Hot water

Automobile

Office

Hospital

Heat Pump

Building

Adsorption system

Air-Conditioning

Combustion

Cooling

Heating

slide4

Background Need to Build Low-Carbon Society

  • Montreal Protocol (1987)
    • Phase out of ozone depletion gasses, CFCs, HCFCs, etc.
      • Developed countries
        • CFC: 1995 (Phase out was completed in Japan)
        • HCFC: 2020 (Production is being reduced)
      • Developing countries
        • CFC: Phase out in 2010 (start from 1999)
        • HCFC: Phase out in 2040 (start from 2016)
  • Alternative refrigerants: HFCs (R134a, R410A, etc. )
    • Successful replacement
  • Kyoto Protocol (1997)
    • Reduction of greenhouse gases, CO2, HFCs(R32, R410A, etc.), etc.
      • Developed countries
        • Average reduction of 5.2% reduction from 1990 level by the year 2012
        • 6% reduction for Japan, F-gas regulation in Europe
  • IPCC Fifth Assessment Report: Sep. 2013 ~ Oct. 2014
slide5

Motivation Next Generation Refrigerants

  • Natural refrigerants
    • HC in refrigerator, CO2 in HP water heater, NH3 in industrial …
  • Tentative continuous use of HFCs for midway
    • Refrigerant management
    • Refrigerant leakage, Refrigerant tracking, Engineers skill, …
    • R32is now being promoted.
  • Low GWP synthetic refrigerants: HFOs
    • R1234yf for mobile AC, R1234ze(E) for turbo chiller,R1234ze(Z) for heat pump in high temperature range …other HFOs, R1234ye, R1233zd, R1243zf, R1225
    • Study on Properties, Heat transfer , Drop-in test, …
  • Refrigerant mixtures
    • Limitation of pure refrigerant properties
    • Suitable properties such as pressure, flammability, …
    • Property measurements, Cycle simulation, Drop-in test, …
slide6

Introduction

by EijiHIHARA, University of Tokyo

Summary of the proposed regulation of HFCs

  • EU protocol on mobile air-conditioning refrigerants
  • GWP < 150 from January 1, 2011
  • Revise the Montreal Protocol (US, Canada, Mexico)
  • Restriction of production and sales of HFCs
  • F-gas Regulation for stationary air-conditioners
  • Reducing leakage,Proper management, Instruction courses, Labeling, Report by producers/importers/exporters
slide7

Proposed phasedown schedule of HFCs

Proposal by US, Canada, Mexico

Developing countries

Developed countries

Proposal by EU Commission

slide8

Emissions of HFCs in Japan -present situation-

Total CO2 emission of HFCs[million-t]

others

Ref. & AC

million-t CO2

Small refrigerator

Large refrigerator

Medium refrigerator

Package AC for building

Other business use

Room AC

Show case (split-type)

In dispose

In use

Leakage

slide9

Trend in mildly flammable refrigerants

  • Environment-friendly refrigerants
  • Zero ODP (ozone depletion potential)
  • Low GWP (global warming potential)

Refrigerants for room and package air-conditioners

  • HFOs
  • R1234fy ODP=0, GWP=4
  • R1234ze(E)ODP=0, GWP=6
  • HFCs
  • R32 ODP=0, GWP=675(note: most of other HFCs: GWP>1000)

Mildly flammable

rank 2L on ASHRAE Standard 34

Requirement of risk assessment

slide10

Methodology of risk assessment

Burning characteristics of flammable refrigerants

Mechanism of ignition

Probability of ignition

= (Leakage) X (High concentration) X (Ignition source) X (Low air velocity)

slide11

Research on safety of mildly flammable refrigerants

By

EijiHIHARA, Tatsuhito HATTORI, Makoto ITO

University of Tokyo

  • Leakage of mildly flammable refrigerants
slide12

Simulation conditions of leakage of refrigerants

Leakage scenarios

Variable refrigerant flow air conditioning systems for building (VRF)

Room air conditioners (RAC)

slide13

Simulation results of leakage of refrigerants

Leak of R32 from wall-mounted indoor unit of RAC

Simulation model

Simulation result

isosurface of concentration at LFL (13.3 vol%)

Leakage scenario

Combustion does not occur

if the ignition source does not exist inside the indoor unit.

slide14

Simulation results of leakage of refrigerants

Leak of R32 from floor-mounted indoor unit of RAC

Simulation model

Simulation result

isosurface of concentration at LFL (13.3 vol%)

Leakage scenario

The leakage of flammable refrigerants from a floor-mounted indoor unit has a high risk of combustion.

slide15

Simulation results of leakage of refrigerants

Leak of R32 from outdoor unit of RACin balcony

Simulation model

Simulation result

isosurface of concentration at LFL (13.3 vol%)

Leakage scenario

The leakage of flammable refrigerants from an outdoor unit has a high risk of combustion.

Note: Drains and under cuts shorten the presence of the gas.

slide16

Simulation results of leakage of refrigerants

Leak of R32 from ceiling-mounted indoor unit of VRF

Simulation model

Simulation result

isosurface of concentration at LFL (13.3 vol%)

Leakage scenario

A combustion gas region only exists just below the air outlet and the suction of the VRF, even if the entire quantity of refrigerant is discharged.

slide17

Simulation results of leakage of refrigerants

Time variation of concentration of R32

slide18

Research and development of low-GWP refrigerants suitable for heat pump system

By

Shigeru KOYAMA, Kyushu University

Yukihiro HIGASHI, Iwaki Meisei University

Akio MIYARA, Saga University

Ryo AKASAKA, Kyushu Sangyo University

  • Flammability
  • Toxicity
  • Thermodynamic properties
  • Transport properties
  • Heat transfer
  • Heat pump cycle