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Spine and Thorax . Kinesiology Flash Cards . Directions . The first slide asks a question. The second slide answers the question. Use these slides like flash cards to test your core knowledge. . Question . Arrange these erector spinae muscles from lateral to medial Iliocostalis Spinalis

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Spine and Thorax

Kinesiology Flash Cards

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Directions

  • The first slide asks a question.

  • The second slide answers the question.

  • Use these slides like flash cards to test your core knowledge.

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Question

  • Arrange these erector spinae muscles from lateral to medial

    • Iliocostalis

    • Spinalis

    • Longissimus

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Answer

  • From lateral to medial, the erector spinae muscles are

    • Iliocostalis

    • Longissimus

    • Spinalis

      Mnemonic Device: ILike Standing. Remembering that spinalis is closest to the spine is also helpful.

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Question

  • What is the action of the erector spinae muscles?

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Answer

  • Extension of the spinal column.

    • It also prevents flexion of the spine.

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Question

  • What is the antagonist of the erector spinae muscles?

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Action

  • Rectusabdominis

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Question

  • Which abdominal muscle has an action of contralateral rotation when unilaterally contracting?

    • Internal abdominal oblique

    • External abdominal oblique

    • Transversus abdominis

    • Rectus abdominis

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Answer

  • Internal abdominal oblique

  • External abdominal oblique

  • Transversus abdominis

  • Rectus abdominis

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Question

  • Which abdominal muscle has an action of ipsilateral rotation when unilaterally contracting?

    • Internal abdominal oblique

    • External abdominal oblique

    • Transversus abdominis

    • Rectus abdominis

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Answer

  • Internal abdominal oblique

  • External abdominal oblique

  • Transversus abdominis

  • Rectus abdominis

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Question

The groove formed by the spinous and transverse processes in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spine is called ______.

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Answer

The lamina groove

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Question

The superior portion of the sternum, which articulates with the clavicles and the first and second ribs, is called the ______.

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Answer

Manubrium

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Question

The inferior portion of the sternum that serves as an attachment site for the abdominal aponeurosis is called ______.

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Answer

The xiphoid process

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Question

Which group of muscles runs from the sacrum to the occiput along the posterior aspect of the vertebral column?

a. Quads

b. Hamstrings

c. Abdominals

d. Erector spinae

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Answer

a. Quads

b. Hamstrings

c. Abdominals

d. Erector spinae

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Question

Of the three muscles that make up the erector spinae group, which lies closest to the spine?

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Answer

Spinalis

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Question

Explain the general actions of the erector spinae group.

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Answer

  • Bilaterally:

    • Extends the vertebral column

  • Unilaterally

    • Laterally flexes the vertebral column to the same side

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Question

The transversospinalis group is composed of which three muscles?

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Answer

  • Multifidi

  • Rotatores

  • Semispinalis

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Question

Explain the general actions of the multifidi and rotatores.

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Answer

  • Extend the vertebral column

  • Rotate the vertebral column to the opposite side.

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Question

What is the action of the semispinalis?

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Answer

Extend the vertebral column and head.

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Question

The fibers of splenius capitis and splenius cervicis do not run parallel to the spine like the other back muscles. Which direction do the fibers run?

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Answer

Obliquely

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Question

The splenius capitis is deep to the rhomboids and trapezius, but is superficial between which two muscles?

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Answer

Trapezius and sternocleidomastoid.

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Question

Define the actions of splenius capitis and splenius cervicis.

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Answer

  • Unilaterally

    • Rotate the head to the same side

    • Laterally flex the head and neck

  • Bilaterally

    • Extend the head and neck

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Question

These eight small muscles are the deepest in the posterior neck. They help to stabilize the axis and atlas and rock or tilt the head. What are they?

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Answer

The suboccipitals

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Question

The individual names of the suboccipitals are ______.

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Answer

  • Rectus capitis posterior major

  • Rectus capitis posterior minor

  • Oblique capitis superior

  • Oblique capitis inferior

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Question

Quadratus lumborum is the deepest muscle of the:

  • Thigh

  • Abdomen

  • Low back

  • Forearm

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Answer

  • Thigh

  • Abdomen

  • Low back

  • Forearm

    While it seems like the QL is the deepest muscle of the low back, it is actually considered the deepest muscle of the abdomen.

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Question

The actions of the quadratus lumborum are ______.

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Answer

  • Unilaterally

    • Elevates the hip

    • Laterally flexes the vertebral column

    • Assists in extension of the vertebral column

  • Bilaterally

    • Fixes the last rib during respiration

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Question

The origin of the quadratus lumborum is:

  • Posterior iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament

  • Last rib, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae 1-4

  • Last rib, spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae 1-4

  • Posterior iliac crest and the last rib

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Answer

  • Posterior iliac crest, iliolumbar ligament

  • Last rib, transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae 1-4

  • Last rib, spinous processes of lumbar vertebrae 1-4

  • Posterior iliac crest and the last rib

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Question

The term abdominals refers to what four muscles?

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Answer

  • Rectus abdominis

  • External oblique

  • Internal oblique

  • Transverse abdominis

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Question

Which of the four abdominal muscles have fibers that run straight up and down?

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Answer

Rectus abdominis

The word rectus means straight in Latin. Anytime a muscle has the name rectus, it indicates that the muscle fibers run vertically.

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Question

Which muscle is the primary muscle of respiration?

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Answer

The diaphragm

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Question

What is the action of the diaphragm?

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Answer

  • Draws down the central tendon of the diaphragm

  • Increases the volume of the thoracic cavity

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Question

  • The small, slender muscles between the ribs are named ______.

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Answer

The intercostals

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Question

The actions of the intercostals are ______.

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Answer

  • External Intercostals

    • Draw the ventral area of the ribs upward to increase the space of the thoracic cavity

  • Internal Intercostals

    • Draw the ventral part of the ribs downward to decrease the space of the thoracic cavity

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Question

Define the term ligamentum nuchae.

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Answer

The ligamentum nuchae is the connective tissue that runs from the external occipital protuberance to the spinous process of C-7 in the neck. It stabilizes the head and neck and serves as an attachment site for muscles like the trapezius.

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Question

Define the term thoracolumbar aponeurosis.

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Answer

The thoracolumbar aponeurosis is a broad, flat tendon that stretches across the thorax and lumbar regions.

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