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  2. Mental Toughness -About the presentation No need to take notes There is an information pack Complete the Further Information Form for an emailed copy of the PP slides Hand that in at the end of the presentation Happy to take questions as we go along © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  3. Mental Toughness • The Model & it’s applications • The Measure – MTQ48 – you can try it! • Developing Mental Toughness • The importance of Mental Toughness © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  4. What is Mental Toughness? “The ability to consistently perform towards the upper range of your talent & skills regardless of competitive circumstances” Loehr (1994) Note emphasis on Peak Performance – not just Stress Management! © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  5. Is Mental Toughness Important? It is! Mental Toughness enables you to: Assess an individuals capacity to deal with stressors & challenges in the workplace Understand why one person succeeds & another struggles when the pressure is on Develop approaches to help organisations & individuals perform under pressure Recruit more effectively around key criteria © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  6. Origins 1 Kobasa’s Model of Hardiness • Commitment, control, challenge • Reliability & validity issues Dienstbier • Physiological toughening = psychological toughening Loehr • Leading tennis sports psychologist Sports Psychology • Often mentioned but poorly defined • Explanation for why teams/individuals fail to live up to their abilities ‘on the day’ • Why it works was missing © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  7. Origins 2 Dr Peter Clough @ The University of Hull • Work with Rugby & Soccer teams, & Golf Pros • Added sub scales & fourth dimension – Confidence • Development of a valid occupational measure AQR’s Contribution • Working with change (HM Customs & Excise), Engineering companies (1st tier suppliers) & others (inc. Finance) • Linked needs of end users to leading edge research Together • Got to the bottom of the Confidence scale • Developed the occupational questionnaire – MTQ48 • Identified practical applications & applied a developmental approach © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  8. The Four C’s Mental Toughness has 4 components: • Challenge • Control • Commitment • Confidence Which can be combined to provide an • overall measure of Mental Toughness © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  9. Challenge Some see challenges, variety, problems & changes as opportunities - others see these as threats © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  10. Challenge& the Workplace For employees Today's jobs are more reactive and more unpredictable than ever – a higher proportion are “front line” customer facing jobs. We are expected to be highly responsive to changes and challenges – and the pace has quickened thanks to technology and the demands of the customer. It’s a demand we increasingly make of employees but rarely do we assess their capacity to deal with it – and do anything about it. For managers & high scorers They will tend to create a lot of change and challenge – often leading to initiative overload – which in turn stresses those who are not “high” on challenge. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  11. Control Some feel in control and have influence - others feel that things happen to them & they have little control © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  12. Control& the Workplace For employees Control has long been understood to be a major component of stress for many people. Today, we want people who can do more than one thing at a time – multi-tasking, flexibility, etc are bye-words in job design. We are expected to do more than carry out a simple set of tasks – in a more complex occupational world. It’s a demand we increasingly make of employees but rarely do we assess their capacity to deal with it – and do anything about it. For managers & high scorers They will tend to be able to stay on top of a wide range of activities – possibly inhibiting others who are not as able in this sense. They can emerge as the classic “control freak”. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  13. Control - Sub Scales © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  14. Confidence Some will have the self belief to successfully complete tasks, others will be unsettled by setbacks & give in © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  15. Confidence & the Workplace For employees More jobs today have the capacity for things going wrong for the job holder. Call centre work is a good example. Any customer facing activity (e.g. arranging deliveries)is another. A greater propensity for setbacks can wear out people quickly. Its an increasing need – but we rarely assess it and do anything to help those at risk. For managers & high scorers Typically they will be very self confident – and may well be less tolerant of those who have lower levels of confidence. This can be seen as “bullying behaviour”. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  16. Confidence - Sub Scales © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  17. Commitment Some like working to clear measured goals & targets. Others are more easily distracted or bored. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  18. Commitment & the workplace For employees In the last 15 years we have seen the widespread implementation of performance management and KPIs. People at all levels are measured closely on various aspects of their role – a lot can depend on that performance It’s a demand we increasingly make of employees but, as we have seen, many may not respond positively to measures. We need to assess this and support many much better. For managers & high scorers Typically they will be motivated by “numbers” and may well also manage by “numbers”. Issuing targets without support can create stress © AQR LTD JULY 2005


  20. Applications of Mental Toughness Stress Management Development of Peak Performance Supporting people who are moving into more demanding roles Entrepreneur Development Career & Succession Planning © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  21. Stress Management A lot of current focus is on the organisation – to provide the best working environment But there are differences in performance even when the environment is good (or poor!). We need to understand why some respond better than others for a complete approach to Stress Management © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  22. The Nature Of Stress Stress can be defined as: How we respond – physiologically or psychologically To stressors and challenges– physical and mental Which place special demands on a person. Understanding how we respond is the key – there are many factors – the two most important are Personality and Mental Toughness. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  23. A Model Of Stress 1 Stress is the result of the impact of stressors and the way the individual responds to that stressor STRESSORS CONSEQUENCES Individual Level Group Level Organisational Level Extra-organisational Psychological Behavioural Cognitive Physiological STRESS THE INDIVIDUAL Personality; Mental Toughness; Age, Self Belief, Gender, Social Support, Physical Fitness, Challenges Special effort Peak Performance © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  24. Peak Performance • Flip side of the same coin… • Can’t achieve peak performance without effective stress management!! • Characteristics of peak performance include: • Seeing challenge as an opportunity for personal/ professional growth • Feeling in control of environment and self • Being assertive & having confidence in abilities • Working hard & committing to goals • Awareness of self and your impact on others © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  25. How do you measure Mental Toughness and what can you do about it? © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  26. MTQ48 Questionnaire • On-line, onscreen and paper & pencil version • 4 types of reports • Applications • Selection • Management Development • Coaching • Mentoring • Employee development/appraisal © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  27. MTQ48 Reports For the Individual: Individual Reportprovides clear straight forward feedback of test results Development Reportprovides clear feedback plus suggestions for development and training to improve performance on each scale For the Coach/Manager: Assessment Reportgives clear feedback on 4 scales & at least 6 questions to help probe each area Coaching Reportgives clear feedback on 4 scales plus suggested coaching & development actions designed to compliment the development report © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  28. MTQ48 – Validity Validity measures the extent to which a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure • Criterion Related Validity – Studies show that the validity coefficient ranges from .30 to .42 across the 4 scales • Construct Related Validity – Factor analysis shows a clear factor structure and correlation with other measures such as 16pf5 and Prevue is very good. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  29. MTQ48 – Reliability Reliability is the extent to which an instrument measures a particular characteristic. All scales exceed the acceptable level of reliability (0.70) and the reliability of the overall instrument is excellent. © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  30. Mental Toughness Development What we can do: Mental Toughness Development Programme • Stress Management Workshop • Peak Performance Workshop Same programme – different front cover! One to One Coaching • Fastest growing area An application of the above programme Developed with our partners at Hull University © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  31. Mental Toughness Development Core elements • Innovative content • Leading edge materials • Combined with the best of traditional content • Looks at the issue from your perspective – and that of the people who work around you • It works! Operates through 4 phases © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  32. Mental Toughness Development First Phase – Understand the enemy Understanding the nature of stressors & challenge Where do stressors and challenges come from – which are significant for you and others around you. Use the stress model. Understanding yourself – How do you respond? Understand how you and others respond to stressors Use MTQ48 + a personality measure (MBTI or PREVUE) To produce a picture of you and your needs © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  33. Mental Toughness Development Second Phase – What can I do about it all? Dealing with the “enemy” • Positive thinking • Visualisation • Attentional Control • Anxiety Control • Goal setting Coping with the “enemy” • Relaxation techniques • Controlled breathing • Guided imaging • Biofeedback To provide a toolkit © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  34. Mental Toughness Development Third Phase - Additional Practical Inputs • Fatigue – State & Trait – leading edge work on impact on stress • Procrastination & Time management • Team toughness Finally - Monitoring and Action Planning • GSR meters • Diaries • Practical development suggestions • Action Planning A programme which works with a Peak performance emphasis © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  35. Mental Toughness Development Programme Programme is accompanied by comprehensive workbook • Supports each step of the development programme • Supports the exercises and provides opportunity for individual reflection • Can be referred back to time & time again • Can be used to support others • Can be used in a coaching setting Copy available for examination © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  36. Mental Toughness Training- the evidence • Training on overall Mental Toughness and on specific scales does work – there now formal studies • Studies show that training can develop Mental Toughness &through this can improve performance (BPS – Jan -05) • Class room confidence building programmes deliver improved performance • (pilot study using elements of the development programme) © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  37. Benefits of MTQ48 & Mental Toughness Development Creates understanding of an important concept User friendly tool & concept for management and employees MTQ48 quick and easy to use Learning for everyone (those with low & high scores) Practical, no nonsense approach Can be used at every stage of an employee’s development © AQR LTD JULY 200

  38. The widening range of applications Education- studies show • The more Mentally Tough you are, the better your academic attainment levels. Health- studies show: • Mental Toughness is related to the health of individuals – more likely to exercise and more likely to eat better • There is evidence that Mentally Tough people recover more quickly from trauma and from operations Social– studies show: • Mental Toughness is inversely related to anti-social behaviour The range of applications is expanding rapidly! © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  39. For employers, the Bottom Line... Mental Toughness results in: • Better performance - £ • Improved morale & a better working environment • Better ability to recruit people who can handle stressors • Reduced risk of stress related claims and awards - £ • Stress now single most common reason for employment tribunals • Stress is fastest growing claim on employer’s liability insurance © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  40. Any Questions? © AQR LTD JULY 2005

  41. ILM – Leadership Styles Background • Institute of Leadership & Management (ILM) identify need for a good leadership measure • No psychometric which focuses on leadership The Challenge • Can we develop a measure which is high quality and which applies to several models at one time? • AQR Ltd with Dr Peter Clough and (Dr) Nollaig Brown accept the challenge in December 2005

  42. ILM – Leadership Styles The Research • Examined every major leadership model used in academia and the occupational world • Stripped each back to underlying principles • Found that all models had roots in 6 leadership styles • Found that all models overlapped with one or more models Next Step • A draft questionnaire was developed for validation • Validation study launched

  43. ILM – Leadership Styles What does it measure? - The Scales. There are 6 which, together, describe an individual’s preferred style Orientation Scales

  44. ILM – Leadership Styles What does this mean? • Each person has their own preferred style • Each will face different situations and cultures at different times • Styles can be mediated by competencies. • The challenge for the individual is to remain effective in all circumstances – applying relevant skills and behaviours • The challenge for the organisation is to develop its people to perform in the desired culture and in the preferred style. Combined, this is the challenge for management and employee development.

  45. ILM – VALIDATION STUDY We are looking for organisations who will participate in the validation study. If interested please make a note on the Further Information sheet – someone will be in touch within 48 hours. Thank you!