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Technology. Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). . Technology. Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the knowledge of a process . .

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technology
Technology

Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good).

technology1
Technology

Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the knowledge of a process.

technology2
Technology

Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the knowledge of a process. This process could be the process of producing a commodity, the process of rendering a service, or the process of managing an institution.

technology3
Technology

Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the knowledge of a process. This process could be the process of producing a commodity, the process of rendering a service, or the process of managing an institution. Therefore it is a dynamic rather than a static concept.

technology4
Technology

Technology is a pool of freely available information used to produce goods of value (Public good). Technology can also be defined as the knowledge of a process. This process could be the process of producing a commodity, the process of rendering a service, or the process of managing an institution. Therefore it is a dynamic rather than a static concept. That is, it is a continuously evolving process which requires adaptation and modification on an ongoing basis.

technology transfers
Technology Transfers

Technology transfers occur through:

  • Trade (goods and services as well direct sales of factories and know-how)
  • Lifestyle (TV, Movies, Internet)
  • Business Methods
technology sectoral and regional impact
Technology: sectoral and regional impact

Technology transfer impacts:

  • Urban communities
  • Rural areas
resource bases for industrialization
Resource Bases for Industrialization
  • Internal public resources include government investments to create infrastructures and to deliver essential services
resource bases for industrialization1
Resource Bases for Industrialization
  • Internal public resources include government investments to create infrastructures and to deliver essential services
  • Internal private resources, comprising local businesspeople and entrepreneurs
resource bases for industrialization2
Resource Bases for Industrialization
  • Internal public resources include government investments to create infrastructures and to deliver essential services
  • Internal private resources, comprising local businesspeople and entrepreneurs
  • External public resources include supranational institutions such as the UN
resource bases for industrialization3
Resource Bases for Industrialization
  • Internal public resources include government investments to create infrastructures and to deliver essential services
  • Internal private resources, comprising local businesspeople and entrepreneurs
  • External public resources include supranational institutions such as the UN
  • External private resources: the contributions of international corporations
technology transfers positive and negative effects

Technology Transfer

Positive

Negative

Product Sales

(Consumer)

Upgrades Consumption know how/consumer education

Affordable only to affluent segments

Product Sales

(Industrial)

Upgrades production process technologies; technician/engineering skills; lowers per unit production costs/prices

Displaces workers with more intensive use of capital

Wall-Mart effects on the local businesses.

Licensing, technology agreements; corporate R & D efforts

Broadens, elevates technology bases and workforce vocational and scientific skills

Banking and Financial institutions

Mobilizes savings to create investment markets for public/private sector-stock market capital; consumer/installment credit for individuals and business

Only the wealthy benefit in the short term and leads to power concentrations; possible unwanted foreign influences encouraging buyers to purchase goods beyond their means.

Technology Transfers: Positive and Negative Effects
technology transfer positive negative

Local procurement of materials and components

Stimulus for private enterprise/local initiatives

Easier for other foreign firms to meet procurement quality requirements

Establishment of wholesale/retail distribution systems

Creates distribution infrastructure/expertise; increases customer exposures to modern goods & services

Foreign control over distribution; consumer exposed to products that are beyond their means to purchase

Worker training in technologies and production know how

Upgrades labor skills and vocational bases

For a minority only; majority have insufficient education

Management training in organizational know how/methods

Increased managerial education and efficiency

Only educated elites benefit

Financial and accounting skills

Planning and budgetary control

Technology transfer positive negative
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions: Democratization

economic development effects on institutions and behaviors1
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

economic development effects on institutions and behaviors2
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors3
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors4
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors5
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
  • Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors6
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
  • Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
  • Migration to Urban areas
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors7
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
  • Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
  • Migration to Urban areas
  • Production base changes from Agriculture to industrial
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors8
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

  • Market oriented decision making
  • Infrastructure must be replaced to accommodate the new environment.
  • Tribal system would be replaced with individualistic modes operandi
  • Migration to Urban areas
  • Production base changes from Agriculture to industrial
  • Landlords become share-holders
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors9
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors10
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors11
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
  • Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors12
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
  • Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
  • Religiosity: declines with industrialization
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors13
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
  • Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
  • Religiosity: declines with industrialization
  • Education systems: from informal to formal
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors14
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
  • Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
  • Religiosity: declines with industrialization
  • Education systems: from informal to formal
  • Cultural homogenization: the Melting Pot Society
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors15
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions:

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

  • Family systems change from extended to nuclear
  • Hereditary and seniority social class systems to economically-based (income, wealth)
  • Gender orientations: patriarchal to egalitarian
  • Religiosity: declines with industrialization
  • Education systems: from informal to formal
  • Cultural homogenization: the Melting Pot Society
  • Social behaviors: conformist to individualistic behaviors
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors16
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

4-- Change in Social Behavior

  • Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors17
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

4-- Change in Social Behavior

  • Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
  • Religion loses its grip
economic development effects on institutions and behaviors18
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and Behaviors

1-- Change in Political Institutions

2-- Change in Economic Institutions

3-- Changes in cultural institutions

4-- Change in Social Behavior

  • Conformist to Individualistic, We to Me
  • Religion loses its grip
  • More delineated (defined) rules of law.
slide33
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and BehaviorsIndividual Changes in Values and Behaviors
  • Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider distinctions break down
slide34
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and BehaviorsIndividual Changes in Values and Behaviors
  • Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider distinctions break down
  • Individual values: Breakdown of traditional values (formality, trust, dislike of change, risk, fatalism, conformism) to modern values (low levels of trust, formality; preferences for efficiency, change, risk; self-help, individualism encouraged)
slide35
Economic Development Effects on Institutions and BehaviorsIndividual Changes in Values and Behaviors
  • Interpersonal behaviors: insider-outsider distinctions break down
  • Individual values: Breakdown of traditional values (formality, trust, dislike of change, risk, fatalism, conformism) to modern values (low levels of trust, formality; preferences for efficiency, change, risk; self-help, individualism encouraged)
  • How Individuals Adapt to Industrializing Societies: The “Rat Race” Emulation Cycle:Individuals migrate to towns and become committed to jobs and urban lifestyles.
impetus for sustained development the rat race emulation cycle

1. Industrializing society

uses economic criteria to determine social position

Migration to towns, young workers join industrializing society

6. Work hard to emulate of consumption patterns of social superiors

2. Work becomes “means to the end” work ethic cultivated

“Demonstration Effect” Exposure to new products, media, lifestyles

5. Commitment to industrial society increases

3. Wages allow new consumption patterns to form and

4. Materialistic behaviors take hold

Impetus for Sustained Development: The “Rat Race” Emulation Cycle
developmental effects industry behavior
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
developmental effects industry behavior1
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
developmental effects industry behavior2
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
developmental effects industry behavior3
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
  • Infrastructure development:
    • Physical: roads, ports
developmental effects industry behavior4
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
  • Infrastructure development:
    • Physical: roads, ports
    • Financial: banking systems
developmental effects industry behavior5
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
  • Infrastructure development:
    • Physical: roads, ports
    • Financial: banking systems
    • Social: government support systems (cost to employers in the form of taxes)
developmental effects industry behavior6
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
  • Infrastructure development:
    • Physical: roads, ports
    • Financial: banking systems
    • Social: government support systems (cost to employers in the form of taxes)
    • Education: training managerial and technical support.
    • Government incentives, services, and influences determine the direction and speed of development.
developmental effects industry behavior7
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development: orderly integration of suppliers, manufacturers and distribution systems
  • National trade policies: From protectionist to free trade economies
  • Local labor costs and availability: From abundant low cost unskilled labor to high cost skilled labor
  • Infrastructure development:
    • Physical: roads, ports
    • Financial: banking systems
    • Social: government support systems (cost to employers in the form of taxes)
    • Education: training managerial and technical support.
    • Government incentives, services, and influences determine the direction and speed of development.
  • Demand Factors
developmental effects industry behavior8
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development:
  • National trade policies:
  • Local labor costs and availability:
  • Infrastructure development:
  • Demand factors
    • Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
developmental effects industry behavior9
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development:
  • National trade policies:
  • Local labor costs and availability:
  • Infrastructure development:
  • Demand factors
    • Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
    • Market demand: aggregate supply > demand; as a result marketing becomes more important competitive tool to get rid of the excess supply
developmental effects industry behavior10
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development:
  • National trade policies:
  • Local labor costs and availability:
  • Infrastructure development:
  • Demand factors
    • Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
    • Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important competitive tool
    • That means Media communications: more commercial media
developmental effects industry behavior11
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development:
  • National trade policies:
  • Local labor costs and availability:
  • Infrastructure development:
  • Demand factors
    • Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
    • Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important competitive tool
    • Media communications:more commercial media
    • That necessitates urbanization: Rural to urban population movements shift demand
developmental effects industry behavior12
Developmental Effects:Industry Behavior
  • Supply chain development:
  • National trade policies:
  • Local labor costs and availability:
  • Infrastructure development:
  • Demand factors
    • Market affluence increases: middle classes emerge
    • Market demand: aggregate supply>demand; marketing becomes important competitive tool
    • Media communications:more commercial media
    • Rural to urban population movements shift demand. This leads to
    • Cultural diversity decreases: more homogeneous demand
developmental effects on industry business practices
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
    • From small scale, harmonious, output-oriented firms to large scale, profit-oriented, competitive organizations
developmental effects on industry business practices1
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
developmental effects on industry business practices2
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
    • Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
developmental effects on industry business practices3
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
    • Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
    • Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
developmental effects on industry business practices4
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
    • Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
    • Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
    • Motivation methods: fear/punishment to rewards/involvement
developmental effects on industry business practices5
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
    • Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
    • Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
    • Motivation methods: fear/punishment to rewards/involvement
    • Management-worker interactions: few to frequent
developmental effects on industry business practices6
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
    • Decision making: from orders given to employee involvement
    • Goal setting and planning: top-down to consensus
    • Leadership styles: from autocratic to democratic
    • Motivation methods: fear/punishment to rewards/involvement
    • Management-worker interactions: few to frequent
    • Career progression: seniority/loyalty to objective merit
developmental effects on industry business practices7
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
developmental effects on industry business practices8
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
developmental effects on industry business practices9
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
    • Urban-based marketing to national coverage
developmental effects on industry business practices10
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
    • Urban-based marketing to national coverage
    • Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
developmental effects on industry business practices11
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
    • Urban-based marketing to national coverage
    • Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
    • Distribution: geographic to product specialization
developmental effects on industry business practices12
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
    • Urban-based marketing to national coverage
    • Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
    • Distribution: geographic to product specialization
    • Marketing emphasis: distribution to demand creation
developmental effects on industry business practices13
Developmental Effects on Industry: Business Practices
  • Corporate behaviors
  • Management style changes
  • Developmental effects on marketing practices
    • Segmentation: ethnic/geographic to income/demographic/psychographic criteria
    • Limited to extensive product lines
    • Urban-based marketing to national coverage
    • Price becomes a competitive marketing tool
    • Distribution: geographic to product specialization
    • Marketing emphasis: distribution to demand creation
    • Market research becomes important
developmental effects on consumer behavior
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
developmental effects on consumer behavior1
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
developmental effects on consumer behavior2
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
  • Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
developmental effects on consumer behavior3
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
  • Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
  • Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important as more women work
developmental effects on consumer behavior4
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
  • Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
  • Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important as more women work
  • Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets, departmental stores) and consumption patterns change (bulk-buying)
developmental effects on consumer behavior5
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
  • Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
  • Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important as more women work
  • Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets, departmental stores) and consumption patterns change (bulk-buying)
  • Merchandising and packaging: viewed as important and become primary marketing tools
developmental effects on consumer behavior6
Developmental Effects on Consumer Behavior
  • Purchasing roles change from patriarchal to egalitarian as families acquire purchasing power and buy more products
  • Sources of information change from personal to commercial media
  • Branding: becomes important to consumers and firms
  • Labor saving products (refrigerators, canned, frozen foods) become important as more women work
  • Retail outlet options increase (supermarkets, departmental stores) and consumption patterns change (bulk-buying)
  • Merchandising and packaging: viewed as important and become primary marketing tools
  • Means of purchase: credit/debit replace cash
industrialization modernization and integration into the regional and global economies
Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and Global Economies

Globalization Process

  • Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies: communistic, self-sufficient, agricultural, autocratic, culturally heterogeneous, hereditary social classes, traditional manufacturing
industrialization modernization and integration into the regional and global economies1
Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and Global Economies

Globalization Process

  • Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
  • Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes: development of: market forces system; regional then national markets as infrastructure develops; government health and welfare systems, financial systems, democracies, national cultures, modern factory methods
slide73
Country Development, Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and Global Economies
  • Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
  • Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes
  • Stage 3: Postindustrial Economies: mature, service-oriented economies, internationally involved, politically, economically very competitive; large, specialized firms—customer-oriented
slide74
Country Development, Industrialization, Modernization, and Integration into the Regional and Global Economies
  • Stage 1: Traditional Pre-industrial Societies
  • Stage 2: Industrialization and Modernization Processes
  • Stage 3: Postindustrial Economies
  • Stage 4: Regionally and Globally Involved Societies: members of trade blocs and global bodies; source and sell worldwide—deeply involved in global economy; regional media, products, currencies, cultures, infrastructures
obstacles to economic development
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
    • Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
obstacles to economic development1
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
    • Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
    • Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
obstacles to economic development2
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
    • Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
    • Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
    • Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs. regimented factory disciplines
obstacles to economic development3
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
    • Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
    • Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
    • Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs. regimented factory disciplines
  • Geographic Impediments
    • Resource impediments: lack of consistent agriculture, energy sources, minerals
obstacles to economic development4
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
    • Population migration problems:over-urbanization; towns are melting pots
    • Worker frustration: low-paid unskilled work
    • Worker adjustment problems: rural lifestyles vs. regimented factory disciplines
  • Geographic Impediments
    • Resource impediments: lack of consistent agriculture, energy sources, minerals
    • Geographic location: affects climate, infrastructure development, trading route access
obstacles to economic development5
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
  • Geographic Impediments
  • Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial language
obstacles to economic development6
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
  • Geographic Impediments
  • Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial language
  • Institutional Resistance to Change
    • Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
obstacles to economic development7
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
  • Geographic Impediments
  • Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial language
  • Institutional Resistance to Change
    • Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
    • Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms (SOEs)
obstacles to economic development8
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
  • Geographic Impediments
  • Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial language
  • Institutional Resistance to Change
    • Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
    • Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms (SOEs)
    • Cultural Resistance: religion (to westernization);

education (humanities-based versus science/technology);

rigid class system (old money);

ethnic or tribal divisions

obstacles to economic development9
Obstacles to Economic Development
  • Industrialization Process Impediments
  • Geographic Impediments
  • Ethnic and Linguistic Composition: Common languages must develop for economic development/coordination to occur; dominant ethnic language, colonial language
  • Institutional Resistance to Change
    • Political Resistance: incumbent politicians resist change
    • Economic Resistance: privileged families, firms (SOEs)
    • Cultural Resistance: religion (to westernization); education (humanities-based versus science/technology); rigid class system (old money); ethnic or tribal divisions
key points
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
key points1
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
  • Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to modernization and westernization
key points2
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
  • Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to modernization and westernization
  • Individuals migrate to become part of the modern
key points3
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
  • Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to modernization and westernization
  • Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society
  • Economic development causes change in industry demand and supply chain
key points4
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
  • Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to modernization and westernization
  • Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society
  • Economic development causes change in industry demand and supply chain
  • Corporate behaviors alter to emphasize profit-oriented, competitive behaviors, and participative corporate cultures
key points5
Key Points
  • Economic development causes changes in country political, economic and cultural institutions, and in individual values, attitudes and behaviors
  • Technology transfers by international corporations contribute to modernization and westernization
  • Individuals migrate to become part of the modern society
  • Economic development causes change in industry demand and supply chain
  • Corporate behaviors alter to emphasize profit-oriented, competitive behaviors, and participative corporate cultures
  • Consumer behaviors change as companies become more sophisticated and aggressive in their marketing efforts