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MENA3100. 1 st lecture General information, what to learn and some repetition of crystallography. Student contact information . Who is involved?. Anette E. Gunnæs : eleonora(at)fys.uio.no, 91514080 (General, TEM, ED) Johan Taftø: johan.tafto(at)fys.uio.no (waves optics, TEM, EELS)

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mena3100

MENA3100

1st lecture

General information, what to learn and

some repetition of crystallography

MENA3100

who is involved
Who is involved?
  • Anette E. Gunnæs: eleonora(at)fys.uio.no, 91514080 (General, TEM, ED)
  • Johan Taftø: johan.tafto(at)fys.uio.no (waves optics, TEM, EELS)
  • Ole Bjørn Karlsen: obkarlsen(at)fys.uio.no (OM, XRD)
  • Sissel Jørgensen: sissel.jorgensen(at)kjemi.uio.no (SEM, EDS, XPS)
  • Spyros Diplas: spyros.diplas(at)smn.uio.no (XPS)
  • Lasse Vines: Lasse.vines(at)fys.uio.no (SIMS)
  • Terje Finnstad: terje.finnstad(at)fys.uio.no (SPM)
  • Oddvar Dyrlie: oddvar.dyrlie(at)kjemi.uio.no (SPM)
  • Magnus Sørby: magnus.sorby(at)IFE.no (ND)
  • Geir Helgesen: geir.helgesen(at)IFE.no (ND)

MENA3100

general information
General information
  • Lectures
    • Based on “Microstructural characterization of materials” + by Brandon and Kaplan. SPM lecture based on chapter 7.8 in second edition of “Physical methods for materials characterisation” by Flewitt and Wild. EBSD will be based on separate text.
    • Some parts of the Brandon and Kaplan book will be regarded as self study material and other parts will be taken out of the curriculum (chapter 7 + some sub chapters).
  • Project work
    • Energy related projects will be announced by the end of January
    • Two students will work together, rank projects with 1st-3rd priority
    • Written report, oral presentation and individual examination
    • Counts 40 % of final grade
  • Laboratories
    • Three groups: A, B, C
    • Individual reports
    • All reports have to be evaluated and found ok before final written exam

MENA3100

laboratory groups
Laboratorygroups

Laboratory work will mainly take place on Tuesdays.

The trip to IFE, Kjeller has been rescheduled to Wednesday 13th of February!

MENA3100

what to learn about
Imaging/microscopy

Optical

Electron

SEM

TEM

Scanning probe

AFM

STM

Diffraction

X-rays

Electrons

ED in TEM and EBSD in SEM

Neutrons

Spectroscopy

EDS

X-rays

EELS

Electrons

XPS, AES

Electrons (surface)

SIMS

Ions

Sample preparation

Mechanical grinding/polishing

Chemical polishing/etching

Ion bombardment

Crunching etc……

What to learn about

Different imaging modes.

Mapping of elements or

chemical states of elements.

The same basic theory for all

waves.

MENA3100

probes used
Visible light

Optical microscopy (OM)

X-ray

X-ray diffraction (XD)

X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)

Neutron

Neutron diffraction (ND)

Ion

Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

Cleaning and thinning samples

Electron

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

Electron holography (EH)

Electron diffraction (ED)

Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)

Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)

Probes used

MENA3100

basic principles electron probe

Valence

M

3d6

M

3p4

L

3d4

3s2

2p4

3p2

K

Electron

shell

2s2

2p2

1s2

L

K

Basic principles, electron probe

Electron

Auger electron or

x-ray

Characteristic x-ray emitted or Auger

electron ejected after relaxation of inner

state.

Low energy photons (cathodoluminescence)

when relaxation of outer stat.

Secondary electron

MENA3100

basic principles x ray probe

Valence

M

Electron

shell

L

K

Basic principles, x-ray probe

X-ray

Auger electron

Secondary x-rays

M

L

K

Characteristic x-ray emitted or Auger

electron ejected after relaxation of inner

state.

Low energy photons (cathodoluminescence)

when relaxation of outer stat.

Photo electron

MENA3100

basic principles
Basic principles

X-rays

Electrons

Ions

(SEM)

(XD)

X-rays

X-rays (EDS)

(XPS)

BSE

Ions (SIMS)

PE

AE

SE

AE

(Also used for

cleaning/thinning samples)

You will learn about:

- the equipment

-imaging

-diffraction

-the probability for different events to happen

-energy related effects

-element related effects

-etc., etc., etc……..

SE

E<Eo

(EELS)

E=Eo

(TEM and ED)

MENA3100

basic aspects of crystallography

c

α

b

β

γ

a

Basic aspects of crystallography
  • Crystallography describes and characterise the structure of crystals

The unit cell !

Elementary unit of volume!

- Defined by three non planar lattice vectors:

a, b and c

-The unit cell can also be described by

the length of the vectors a,b and c and

the angles between them (alpha, beta, gamma).

MENA3100

unit cell

c

α

b

β

γ

a

Unit cell
  • The crystal structure is described by specifying a repeating element and its translational periodicity
    • The repeating element (usually consisting of many atoms) is replaced by a lattice point and all lattice points have the same atomic environments.
    • The whole lattice can be described by repeating a unit cell in all three dimensions. The unit cells are the smallest building blocks.
    • A primitive unit cell has only one lattice point in the unit cell.

Replaces repeating element

(molecule, base etc.)

MENA3100

axial systems

z

c

α

β

y

b

γ

a

x

Axial systems

The point lattices can be described by 7 axial systems (coordinate systems)

MENA3100

bravais lattice
Bravais lattice

The point lattices can be described

by 14 different Bravais lattices

Hermann and Mauguin symboler:

P (primitiv)

F (face centred)

I (body centred)

A, B, C (bace or end centred)

R (rhombohedral)

MENA3100

hexagonal unit cell
Hexagonal unit cell

a1=a2=a3

γ = 120o

a2

a1

a3

(hkil)

h + k + i = 0

MENA3100

space groups
Crystals can be classified according to 230 space groups.

Details about crystal description can be found in International Tables for Crystallography.

Criteria for filling Bravais point lattice with atoms.

Both paper books and online

Space groups
  • A space group can be referred to by a number or the space group symbol (ex. Fm-3m is nr. 225)
  • Structural data for known crystalline phases are available in books like “Pearson’s handbook of crystallographic data….” but also electronically in databases like “Find it”.
  • Pearson symbol like cF4 indicate the axial system (cubic), centering of the lattice (face) and number of atoms in the unit cell of a phase (like Cu).

MENA3100

Figur: M.A. White: Properties of Materials

lattice planes

z

(001)

(111)

(110)

(010)

Z

Z

Z

c/l

b/k

a/h

(100)

0

y

x

Y

Y

Y

X

X

X

Lattice planes
  • Miller indexing system
    • Crystals are described in the axial system of their unit cell
    • Miller indices (hkl) of a plane is found from the interception of the plane with the unit cell axis (a/h, b/k, c/l).
    • The reciprocal of the interceptions are rationalized if necessary to avoid fraction numbers of (h k l) and 1/∞ = 0
    • Planes are often described by their normal
    • (hkl) one single set of parallel planes
    • {hkl} equivalent planes

MENA3100

directions
The indices of directions (u, v and w) can be found from the components of the vector in the axial system a, b, c.

The indices are scaled so that all are integers and as small as possible

Notation

[uvw] one single direction or zone axis

<uvw> geometrical equivalent directions

[hkl] is normal to the (hkl) plane in cubic axial systems

z

wc

[uvw]

Zone axis [uvw]

c

b

a

vb

ua

y

x

Directions

(hkl)

uh+vk+wl= 0

MENA3100

stereographic projection
Plots planes and directions in a 2D mapStereographic projection

All poles in a zone are on the same great circle!!

Fig 6.5 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

MENA3100

wulff net
Wulff net

Fig 6.8 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons

MENA3100

reciprocal vectors planar distances
Reciprocal vectors, planar distances
  • The normal of a plane is given by the vector:
  • Planar distance between the planes {hkl} is given by:
  • The reciprocal lattice is defined by the vectors :
  • Planar distance (d-value) between planes {hkl} in a cubic crystal with lattice parameter a:

MENA3100