MENA3100. 1 st lecture General information, what to learn and some repetition of crystallography. Student contact information . Who is involved?. Anette E. Gunnæs : eleonora(at)fys.uio.no, 91514080 (General, TEM, ED) Johan Taftø: johan.tafto(at)fys.uio.no (waves optics, TEM, EELS)
General information, what to learn and
some repetition of crystallography
Laboratory work will mainly take place on Tuesdays.
The trip to IFE, Kjeller has been rescheduled to Wednesday 13th of February!
ED in TEM and EBSD in SEM
Crunching etc……What to learn about
Different imaging modes.
Mapping of elements or
chemical states of elements.
The same basic theory for all
Optical microscopy (OM)
X-ray diffraction (XD)
X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS)
Neutron diffraction (ND)
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)
Cleaning and thinning samples
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Electron holography (EH)
Electron diffraction (ED)
Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS)
Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS)
Auger electron spectroscopy (AES)Probes used
KBasic principles, electron probe
Auger electron or
Characteristic x-ray emitted or Auger
electron ejected after relaxation of inner
Low energy photons (cathodoluminescence)
when relaxation of outer stat.
(Also used for
You will learn about:
- the equipment
-the probability for different events to happen
-energy related effects
-element related effects
-etc., etc., etc……..
(TEM and ED)
aBasic aspects of crystallography
The unit cell !
Elementary unit of volume!
- Defined by three non planar lattice vectors:
a, b and c
-The unit cell can also be described by
the length of the vectors a,b and c and
the angles between them (alpha, beta, gamma).
Replaces repeating element
(molecule, base etc.)
The point lattices can be described
by 14 different Bravais lattices
Hermann and Mauguin symboler:
F (face centred)
I (body centred)
A, B, C (bace or end centred)
γ = 120o
h + k + i = 0
Details about crystal description can be found in International Tables for Crystallography.
Criteria for filling Bravais point lattice with atoms.
Both paper books and onlineSpace groups
Figur: M.A. White: Properties of Materials
The indices are scaled so that all are integers and as small as possible
[uvw] one single direction or zone axis
<uvw> geometrical equivalent directions
[hkl] is normal to the (hkl) plane in cubic axial systems
Zone axis [uvw]
Fig 6.8 of Klein (2002) Manual of Mineral Science, John Wiley and Sons