Social Inequality. "...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm ]. What does Social Inequality Mean?. Differential Access to. Prestige. Wealth. Power. Prestige. In What Areas of social life do Inequalities Exist?. Gender Race Age
"...all animals are equal here, but some are more equal than others." [G,Orwell, Animal Farm]
Differential Access to
Hadza of Tanzania
Marx and Engels argued that the real basis of social and political inequality was property, and that since there was no private property in primitive societies, there was no state and no class or inequality.
!Kung bushmen of the Kalahari
Foragers recognize individuals with special skills, but those who possess them are not seen superior in other respects
Little Big Man
Tribe : Oglala Lakota )
With ranked societies comes the need to organize labor beyond the household level and the potential for major construction projects (cooperative labor)
frequently, such cultures are symbolized not by the handshake, which reflects equality, but by different forms of bowing, symbolizing inequality
U. S. 1970
U. S. 1999
Because there are no physical markers or signs of class we need cultural ones.
Wealth: rich people generally are of a higher social class than poor people
Occupation: a garbage collector has a different class status than a physician
Rank These Occupations
What criteria do you use?
None shall wear . . .any lace of gold or silver, lace mixed with gold or silver, silk, spurs, swords, rapiers, daggers, buckles, or studs with gold, silver or gilt. . . except . . .Baron's Sons, all above that rank, Gentlemen attending the Queen, Knights and Captains.
London 2000.The difference in life expectancy between social class I (professionals) and social class V (unskilled manual workers) is 9.5 years for men and 6.4 years for women (Hattersley, 1999).
How easy is it to change class
Max Weber 1864-1920
the four varnas are ranked in descending order of importance, prestige, and purity.
Brahmins are seen as mediators between the human and divine worlds
Brahmins deserve respect from everyone else and are considered so pure that they may never eat food prepared by anyone but another Brahmin.
This means that Brahmins cannot go to a restaurant where the staff are not also Brahmins
A Maithil Brahman from a rural village north of Darbhanga
Brahmin priests at the annual changing of the sacred thread.
The Kshatriya are members of the warrior varna. Their lifetime goal is to serve as protector to their people.
Historically, The Kshatriya has contained most of the political leaders and kings, landowners
Rajput Landowner and his family on their land Smoking a hooka, or water pipe.
The Fruit Merchant
(Paan Wallah) the Paan Maker
Paan is a like chewing tobacco although made from betelnut and paan leaves. It stains your teeth orange.
A Nai or barber sets up shop on the side of the road where anyone can come and get their hair cut or face shaven. Their wives are often midwives.
Dhobi – Washermen They wash the clothing for all the different caste levels. the local Dhobis wash the clothes of their patrons, and then lay them out in to dry.
Mali, or gardeners
In India musicians are Harijans (god's children)
The act of playing some of these instruments is considered to be unclean.
The saliva that is being blown into the horns is thought to be very unhygenic, therefore not fit for people in higher castes to play these instruments.
They were called "untouchables" because they were forbidden to touch anyone who belongs to one of the four varnas.
Each caste must observe certain rules and rituals involving notions of purity and impurity such as food habits .
In northern India, "untouchables"were forced to use drums to announce their arrival
The Hindu Matrimonials
NIYOGI, TELUGU BRAHMIN parents seek alliance for good-looking son,
29/168, B.E., IIM(A). Parents of well educated, fair girls, below 25.
Respond details, horoscope: Box No.xxx The Hindu, Chennai 600 002, India.
VANNIYAKULA KSHATRIYA, 33/ 160, very fair, slim, beautiful, youngish entrepreneur, seeks well settled Hindu, never married professionals in India, preferably abroad below 40, Caste no bar. Respond Resume, Photo, Horoscope,
11 When they divided Purusa how many portions did they make? What do they call his mouth, his arms? What do they call his thighs and feet?12 The Brahman was his mouth, of both his arms was the Rajanya (ksatriyas) made.His thighs became the Vaisya, from his feet the Sudra was produced.(Rig Veda - hymn 10.90)
Thousand-headed, thousand-eyed, thousand-footed Purusha primal man,
Dalits in Vārānasi, India
The first non-Congress government in New Delhi in 1977 argued that lower castes had been stigmatised and exploited in the past and that they should be given special protection through extensive quotas in the domain of public life