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Discovery & Settlement of the New World. Coach Crews – AP US History. Pre-Columbian Era. Hunter gatherers who crossed over the Bering Strait land bridge Over 15,000 years they spread across America population around 1500 CE: 100 million in Central and South America. Pre-Columbian Era.

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discovery settlement of the new world

Discovery & Settlement of the New World

Coach Crews – AP US History

pre columbian era
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Hunter gatherers who crossed over the Bering Strait land bridge
  • Over 15,000 years they spread across America
  • population around 1500 CE: 100 million in Central and South America
pre columbian era1
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Agricultural revolution sparks innovation and establishment of permanent settlements
  • Religion centered around corn, the sun, and water due to their importance
  • Power and authority derived from control of resources
pre columbian era2
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Mound Builders – ancestors of Creeks, Choctaws, & Natchez
    • Mounds served as territory or religious markers
  • Mississippian Culture – along Miss. River & Ohio Valley
    • Burial mounds, farming, fishing led to substantial dwellings
  • Pueblo people – Anasazi
    • Rio Grande valley, baked mud huts, terraced gardens
pre columbian era3
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Northeastern United States
    • Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Mohawk
    • Farming led to accumulation of food surplus and population growth
  • “Three Sister” farming
    • High yield bean that grew on corn stalks w/ squash at base
    • Farmers were female, males were hunters, trade developed between hunters and farmers
pre columbian era4
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Iroquois League of Five Nations
    • Largest military unification in east
  • Aztecs
    • Capital city: Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City)
    • Used military and diplomacy to conquer and form alliances
    • Other cultures paid tributes to the Aztecs
pre columbian era5
Pre-Columbian Era
  • Incas
    • Empire covered 2,500 miles; present day Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina
    • Massive architecture: buildings and bridges
    • Largest empire by 1500 CE but allowed local groups to maintain sovereignty
    • Gave allegiance to Sapa Inca (believed to be descendent of sun-god)
  • Europeans knew little of the Americas (hence “New World”)
  • Scandinavians explored Newfoundland in 1000 CE but colonies failed due to lack of nation-state support
  • Crusades in 11th-14th centuries led to Muslim control of trade routes
    • Became expensive to travel to Asia
    • New route was sought for trade
  • Christopher Columbus born in Italy
  • Printing press led to proliferation of novels about Asia
    • Marco Polo wrote about his adventures to Asia
    • Inspired others to travel
  • Columbus became interested; pitched ideas to multiple countries but failed to gain support.
    • Spain supported him to help spread Christianity
    • Made many demands in the event he was susccessful
  • “Tierra, tierra”: land is spotted Oct 12, 1492
    • Called it San Salvador; thought he was in the East Indies and called natives Indians
    • Impressed the king and queen; funded more trips in later years
cortes defeats the aztecs
Cortes Defeats the Aztecs
  • Conquistador: conqueror
  • Commissioned with expanding the Spanish empire into Mexico
  • Formed military alliances with Aztec enemies
  • Held Montezuma captive and ruled empire through him
  • Guns, swords, etc impressed and frightened Aztecs
cortes defeats the aztecs1
Cortes Defeats the Aztecs
  • 1520 CE – Aztec people fight back; rebellion is crushed by Cortes
  • Tenochtitlan was destroyed, Christian churches built in place of temples.
  • Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Incas in Peru and Spain took control of most of Central and South America
  • Manorial system declined and cities became the center of commerce in Europe
  • Printed documents replaced oral agreements; middle class became more business savvy
  • Mercantilism – nation’s strength is dependent on wealth
    • Leads to overseas exploration
  • New inventions made exploration possible
    • Compass, Astrolabe, Cross staff, Quadrant, Chip board, Hourglass
  • New ship building techniques
    • Caravel – fast merchant ships
    • Carrack – larger supply ships
    • Spanish galleon – used to carry gold; heavily armored
ride of nation states exchanges
Ride of Nation States & Exchanges
  • Nations formed around people with common languages, cultures, histories, etc.
  • Citizens paid taxes for protection and growth of commerce
  • Columbian exchange – introduction of new ideas, products, diseases between Europe and New World
    • Led to 90% destruction of Native population.