Chapter 16: Teams and TeamworkLearning Goals • I can: • Define and explain terms related to teams and teamwork • Explain why teams are used in business • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of teams • Describe types of teams in businesses (formal/informal, committees, departments) • Explain and describe factors that contribute to success and failure of teams • Identify and describe the stages of team development • Describe the roles individuals take on in a team
What is a team? • A group of people with complementary skills required to complete a task, job or project • Teamwork is the process of people working together to accomplish these goals
Why do Organizations Use Teams/Groups? • When people are organized to work together they create synergy • Synergy creation of a whole greater than the sum of its parts
Teamwork Exercise: Islands • Group of six • 7 sheets of paper in a row • Team members line up on paper but leave middle sheet empty • Team members face each other • Task: • Get all team members to be directly opposite of where they are now • Can only move past one person at a time • Must step onto open sheet of paper • Must move past someone in front of you • Two people cannot be on same sheet • Describe the team experience
Teamwork Pros and Cons Pros Cons Social loafing Personality conflicts Differences in work styles Task ambiguity Poor readiness to work • Greater resources for problem solving • Greater creativity and innovation • Improved quality of decision making • Greater commitment to tasks • Higher motivation • Better control and discipline • More individual need satisfaction
Using Teams • Teams have many advantages • For teams to work well, members need training in group dynamics • Consider: • How much time to sports or performance teams spend practicing for the “big event”? (90%) • How much time to business group members spend learning and practicing working in a team (5%) • Group members often learn in front of clients and customers where mistakes are costly
Reflect Think about group work you recently experienced. Do you think the ideas you generated as a group were more diverse and of better quality than if you came up with ideas on your own?
Types of Teams • most common use of group work in business is the meeting • Many people do not approach meetings enthusiastically • Survey showed 27% of respondents view meetings as biggest time waster • Why do meetings fail?
Seven sins of deadly meetings • People arrive late, leave early, and don’t take things seriously • The meeting is too long, sometimes twice as long as necessary • People don’t stay on topic; they digress and are easily distracted • The discussion lacks candour; people are unwilling to tell the truth • The right information isn’t available, so decisions are postponed • Nothing happens when the meeting is over; no one puts decisions into actions • Things never get better; the same mistakes are made meeting after meeting
Formal and Informal Teams Formal groups Informal groups Not recognized on organization chart Not officially created for organizational purposes Emerge as part of informal structure From natural or spontaneous relationships among people Can have positive performance impact Can help satisfy social needs Include interest, friendship and support groups • Teams officially recognized and supported by the organization for specific purposes • Created to perform tasks • Managers serve linking pin roles • E.g. work group consisting of manager and subordinates
To What Groups do You Belong? List all the formal and informal groups to which you belong. Do you belong to more formal or informal groups? Which groups have the biggest impact on your actions?
Temporary Teams • Task force • Assembled to investigate a specific issue or problem • Example: a drop in sales in one product • Product Design Team • Created to design a new product or service • Example: team assembled to create something brand new • Committee • Put together to act upon some matter • Example: health and safety committee to inform employees • Cross-Functional Team • Group of people with different skills put together to carry out all phases of a project from start to finish • Example: creating and launching a new product • Virtual Team • Electronic work group who interact and solve problems mostly electronically
Permanent Teams • Work Team • Group of workers who share a common mission and collectively manager their own affairs within predetermined boundaries • Quality Circle • Group of workers from the same functional area who meet regularly to uncover and solve work-related problems and seek work improvement opportunities
Types of Teams Quiz Types of Teams Quiz (elearning Ontario, Unit 3 Activity 3 Assignment)
How Teams Work • Group Process: • The way the members of any team work together as they transform inputs into outputs • Also known as group dynamics • Includes communications, decision making, norms, cohesion and conflict, among others
Team Effectiveness • Effective teams achieve high levels of performance, member satisfaction and viability for future action • Factors affecting Effectiveness: • Nature of Task • Complex or simple • How well-defined • Affects how intense the process needs to be to get the job done • Organizational Setting • Amount of support provided, i.e., information, resources, technolgoy, rewards, space • Team Size • Larger than six or seven members can be difficult to manage • Odd numbers prevent ties in votes • Team Diversity • More homogeneous groups -- easier to manage relationships • More diversity – more ideas, perspectives and experiences • Group Process • How well the groups works together, handles conflicts, communicates, etc.
Stages of Group Development • Five Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning • Forming: • Orientation an getting to know you stage • Group members should: • Define goals • Determine how to approach the task • Figure out what skills will be required • In this stage the group builds relationships and clarifies the group mission
Stages of Group Development: Storming • Group is in conflict because of differing opinions on what it is supposed to do and how it will do it • Members beginning to see differences in personalities and values • Members feel angry or frustrated with other members • Sometimes groups get stuck in this stage and performance drops
Stages of Group Development: Norming • Stage of resolution • Group resolves issues • Group learns more about one another • Figures out how they are going to work together • Group makes progress toward their goals
Stages of Group Development: Performing • Groups gets the work done and begins accomplishing goals • Energized by positive progress and communicate openly • High energy • Conflicts resolved without issue • Work accomplished most effectively
Stages of Group Development: Adjourning • Task is complete • Group is disbanded • Members feel a sense of loss • Members should spend time recognizing the team’s accomplishments
Creating Successful Teams • As teams work through the stages of team development, they must develop shared norms and cohesiveness • Norms • Rules that the group develops for appropriate and inappropriate behaviours and attitudes • Often unwritten rules of behaviour • Conflict will result if these rules are not developed in the first few stages • Violation of norms usually results in reprimands or expulsion from the team • Performance Norms • Rules regarding the work effort and performance expected from team members • Examples of norms: helpfulness, participation, timeliness, quality of work
Creating Successful Teams • Group Cohesiveness • Degree to which the team develops a bond • Productive teams develop: • strong levels of participation, cooperation and collaboration • because members • trust, share sense of group identify and have confidence in their effectiveness
For Best Results… • Increase Team Cohesion • Establish Positive Performance Norms
Group Decision-Making • Lack of Response • Ideas are presented without discussion; decision made by by-passing all other ideas without evaluation • Authority Rule • Team leader makes the decision for the team • Minority Rule • Two or three members “railroad” the team or pressure the team into accepting an idea • Often done by forcing quick decisions, “Does anyone object?” “Let’s go ahead then” • Majority Rule • Formal voting takes place; majority wins
Group Decision Making • Consensus • Discussion leads to one idea being supported by most and others agree to support it • Ideas are fully discussed and evaluated • Unanimity • All team members agree on the idea to be accepted and implemented
Group Decision Making Advantages Disadvantages Social pressure to conform Individual or minority group domination Time requirements • Greater amounts of information, knowledge and expertise • Increased number of alternatives considered • Increases understanding and acceptance • Increases commitment to follow through
Problems in Groups • Social Loafing • Free riders think they won’t be noticed • People who do not contribute to the group • Groupthink • Group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing, and evaluating ideas • Symptoms of Groupthink: • Believing the group is invincible • Rationalizing unpleasant and disconfirming data • Belief in inherent group morality • Negative stereotypes of competitors • Pressure to conform • Self-censorship of members • Illusions of unanimity • Mind guards – those who protect the group from contrary viewpoints
Groupthink Case Study • Space shuttle Challenger, January 28, 1986 • Launch had been delayed previously due to weather • NASA did not want to delay again • Engineers expressed concern about the O-rings on the shuttle, fearing that they may fail due to cool weather • NASA launch group accepted positive comments for the launch but rejected any negative comments • NASA launched, O-rings failed, shuttle exploded shortly after lift off • All crew members, including the first civilian in space, a school teacher and mother, were killed