Objectives • Identify the different breeds of swine, origin, color patterns and characteristics that make up the breeds • Identify the differences between swine. • List the advantages and disadvantages of each breed in commercial production.
Breeds of Swine • Colored Breeds • White Breeds
Colored Breeds • Known by some to be the meat breeds (terminal) • Most seen at fairs in market competition.
Berkshire • Originated in England • Black with 4 white socks, white muzzle, and tail, ears erect but slightly forward with a short dished snout • Long sided, angular rib spread, and • One of the oldest breeds of swine
Duroc • Originated in the U.S. (influenced by the Jersey Reds) • Dark red with droopy ears. • Noted for their fast growth and good feed efficiency. • On average needs less feed to grow a pound.
Hampshire • Considered an American breed. • Brought to America from Hampshire County England. • Black with a white band over shoulder continuous to include white front legs. • Erect ears and are very popular for their lean, meaty carcasses. • Used by more commercial growers, to crossbreed.
Poland China • American breed developed in the Corn Belt of southwestern Ohio to specifically convert corn into pork efficiently • Black with white socks, muzzle, and tail (six points). Droopy ears. • Produce meaty carcasses with large loin eyes, thick, even flesh, long underline, free of flabbiness, do not have a dished face
Spot • American breed, can be traced back to the original breed that make up the Poland China, “Big China” • White with large black spots over entire body, medium sized droopy ears • Produce pigs with a high growth weight, early maturing, prolific. • Animal must be at least 20% white
White Breeds • Best known for maternal ability, also tend to have larger litters.
Chester White • Originated in U.S. in Pennsylvania (Chester and Delaware counties) • Solid white, medium sized droopy ears. • Usually have large litters and are sought after for their mothering ability.
Landrace • Developed in the U.S. • White, with very large droopy ears, very straight nose or snout. • Long length of body, high percentage of carcass weight in the ham and loin, and correct amount of finish. • Sows are prolific and will farrow large piglets and are exceptionally heavy milkers.
Yorkshire • Originated in England • Most sought after breed. • Great mothering ability, produce larger litters. • Exhibit a long, big frame and are white with erect ears.
Boar • A male pig not castrated that is used for breeding purposes
Barrow • A male pig that is castrated that is entirely meant for pork production
Castration • The removal of testicles from the male swine for the purpose of improving feed conversion, disposition and meat quality
Sow • A female pig that has already produces a litter of baby pigs
Gilt • A female that has NOTproduced a litter piglets
Gestation • The time between fertilization and giving birth (parturition) • 114 days or 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days
Piglet Care • Have feed out from day 1 • Give iron shot • Clip Teeth • Castrate • Ear notch • Dock Tails
Ear Notching • Swine Identification System
Ear Notching • The pig’s right ear is the litter ear (like our last names) • The pig’s left ear is the individual ear (like our first names)
Ear Notching • The right (litter) ear is equal to 9+3+3+1=16 • The left (pig) ear is equal to 3 • This is the 16-3 pig.
Ear Notching • LET’S PRACTICE
Review • How long is a pigs gestation period? • What is a female pig that has not had a litter? • What is a boar? • What is the most important injection that a piglet needs?
Atrophic Rhinitis Brucellosis Erysipelas Leptospirosis PPLO Lice Mange Roundworms Tapeworms Flukes Protozoa Common Parasites and Diseases
Atrophic Rhinitis • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
Brucellosis • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
Erysipelas • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
Leptospirosis • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
PPLO • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
Lice • Cause • Symptoms • What to do
Mange • Cause • Symptoms • What to do