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Biology 201 Dr. Edwin DeMont. Body Fluid Regulation. St. Francis Xavier University. Osmoregulation. Excretion of is usually associated with the regulation of water and solute (ionic) balance through a physiological process called osmoregulation . .

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Biology 201Dr. Edwin DeMont

Body Fluid Regulation

St. Francis Xavier University

slide2

Osmoregulation

Excretion of is usually associated with the regulation of water and solute (ionic) balance through a physiological process called osmoregulation.

Osmosis is associated with the movement of water down its concentration gradients.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Osmosis

Demonstration

St. Francis Xavier University

slide4

Aquatic animals

Osmoregulation is an important concern for aquatic animals – which are surrounded by water.

Large differences in the process for marine or fresh water animals.

St. Francis Xavier University

slide5

Osmosis : Marine Animals

Water tends to move out of Fish

Sugar = ions

W

F

W

F

St. Francis Xavier University

slide6

Osmoregulators

Salt water fish

and Ammonia

Water tends to move out of Fish

St. Francis Xavier University

slide7

Osmosis : Fresh water Fish

Water tends to move intoFish

Sugar = ions

F

W

F

W

St. Francis Xavier University

slide8

Osmoregulators

Fresh water fish

and Ammonia

Water tends to move intoFish

St. Francis Xavier University

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Invertebrate Excretory Systems

Water tends to move into animal.

Demonstration

Fresh water flatworm: - Nitrogenous wastes diffuse across body surface- Flame cells eliminate excess water

St. Francis Xavier University

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Excretion

Excretion is the elimination of metabolic waste products such as carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen and ions.

Protein metabolism produces various nitrogenous wastes.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Nitrogen Metabolism

Amino acid metabolism yields ammonia (NH3)

Ammonia alters acid-base balance as it binds to protons and becomes ammonium ion (NH4+)

Ammonium ion can be toxic

Interferes with Na+/K+ ATPase transporters of cell membranes by substituting for K+

  • Ammonia or ammonium ions must be highly diluted and rapidly excreted;
  • or be converted to less toxic forms: urea or uric acid.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Ammonia

Most aquatic animals – including most bony fishes and most invertebrates rely on ammonia excretion, usually via gills.

This works because:1. Water outside the animal is plentiful to dilute ammonia2. Molecule is small and uncharged so readily penetrates most membranes.

Most terrestrial animals do not have this option so convert ammonia to urea or uric acid (usually in the liver) and transport to the excretory organs.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Urea

Urea is the primary nitrogenous waste of most adult amphibians and mammals.

Urea is produced from two ammonium ions and a bicarbonate ion using ATP.

Urea is 10 – 100 times less toxic than ammonia and when it is removed takes two nitrogens per molecule.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Uric Acid

In other terrestrial animals – insects, birds and most reptiles uric acid is usually the primary nitrogenous waste.

Production of uric acid is more metabolically expensive to produce than urea but is less toxic because it is highly insoluble, removes four nitrogens per molecule and is excreted in a semisolid form.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Invertebrate Excretory Systems

St. Francis Xavier University

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Invertebrate Excretory Systems

  • Initiated by K+ secretion into lumen
  • Fluid more +ve so Cl- attracted
  • KCl makes tubule fluid concentrated so water moves in via osmosis.
  • Infusion of water generates a bulk flow down the tubule
  • Metabolic wastes such as uric acid secreted and transported down system

St. Francis Xavier University

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Urinary System

St. Francis Xavier University

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Anatomy: Nephron

St. Francis Xavier University

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Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Glomerulus – filtration apparatus

Walls of capillaries contain small perforations that as as filters.

Blood pressure forces fluid through the slits.

The filtrate contains small molecules, ions and the primary nitrogenous wastes either uric acid or urea.

Large proteins and blood cells do not get filtered.

St. Francis Xavier University

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Physiology: Countercurrent

Overview

Osmosis

St. Francis Xavier University