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Chapter 5e: The Skeletal System. Bones of the Lower Limbs. The thigh has one bone Femur The heaviest, strongest bone in the body Carries total weight when erect Trochanter – muscle attachment Patellar surface Articulates with tibia. Figure 5.24a–b. Bones of the Lower Limbs.

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bones of the lower limbs
Bones of the Lower Limbs
  • The thigh has one bone
    • Femur
      • The heaviest, strongest bone in the body
      • Carries total weight when erect
      • Trochanter – muscle attachment
      • Patellar surface
        • Articulates with tibia

Figure 5.24a–b

bones of the lower limbs2
Bones of the Lower Limbs
  • The lower leg has two bones
    • Tibia
      • Shinbone
      • Larger and medially oriented
    • Fibula
      • Not part of knee joint
      • Thin and sticklike

Figure 5.24c

slide5

The interosseousmembrane allows impact to either bone to be distributed across the area, and limits the risk of fractures.

bones of the lower limbs3
Bones of the Lower Limbs
  • The Foot
    • Tarsals (7) - ankle
      • Two largest tarsals
        • Calcaneus (heelbone)
        • Talus
    • Metatarsals (5) – sole
    • Phalanges (14) – toes

Figure 5.25

a rches of the foot
ARCHES OF THE FOOT

Foot

  • Supports body weight & serves as lever to propel body forward
  • Each toe has 3 phalanges, big toe has 2
  • Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches
  • Held by ligaments & tendons
    • Two longitudinal
      • medial & lateral
    • One transverse
arches of the foot
Arches of the Foot
  • Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches
  • Held by ligaments & tendons
    • Two longitudinal
      • medial & lateral
    • One transverse

Hoban

Figure 5.26

joints
Joints
  • Articulations of bones
  • Functions of joints
    • Hold bones together
    • Allow for mobility
  • Ways joints are classified:
    • Function – amount of movement allowed
    • Structure – whether composed of fibrous tissue, cartilage, or a cavity
      • Separate boney regions
functional classification of joints
Functional Classification of Joints
  • Axial skeleton
    • Synarthroses – immovable joints
    • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints
  • In limbs
    • Diarthroses – freely moveable joints
joints1
Joints
  • Articulations of bones
  • Functions of joints
    • Hold bones together
    • Allow for mobility
  • Ways joints are classified:
    • Function – amount of movement allowed
    • Structure – whether composed of fibrous tissue, cartilage, or a cavity
      • Separate boney regions
functional classification of joints1
Functional Classification of Joints
  • Axial skeleton
    • Synarthroses – immovable joints
    • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints
  • In limbs
    • Diarthroses – freely moveable joints
structural classification of joints
Structural Classification of Joints
  • Fibrous joints
    • Generally immovable
  • Cartilaginous joints
    • Immovable or slightly moveable = amphiarthroses
  • Synovial joints
    • Freely moveable
fibrous joints
Fibrous Joints
  • Bones united by fibrous tissue
  • Examples
    • Sutures of skull
    • Syndesmoses
      • Allows more movement than sutures
      • Example: distal end of tibia and fibula

Figure 5.27a–b

cartilaginous joints amphiarthrotic slightly moveable
Cartilaginous Joints – amphiarthrotic (slightly moveable)
  • Bones connected by cartilage
  • Examples:
    • Pubic symphysis
    • Intervertebral joints
synovial joints
Synovial Joints
  • Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity
  • Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity
  • Joints of limbs

Hoban

Figure 5.24f–h

features of synovial joints
Features of Synovial Joints
  • Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones
  • Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule
  • Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid
  • Ligaments reinforce the joint
structures associated with the synovial joint
Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint
  • Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs
    • Lined with synovial membranes
    • Filled with synovial fluid
    • Not actually part of the joint
  • Tendon sheath
    • Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon
types of synovial j oints b ased on shape
Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
  • Shape of articulating bone determines movements
  • Plane
    • Flat surfaces
    • Gliding movements
    • Found in Intercarpal joints of wrist
slide36

Hinge

    • Cylindrical end of one with trough-shaped surface of 2nd
    • Movement in one plane
    • Found in elbow, ankle, phalanges
  • Pivot
    • Rounded end of one bone fits into sleeve of other
    • Rotate around axis
    • Found in proximal radioulnar joint, axis & atlas
slide37

Condyloid

    • Egg shape of one fits into oval concavity of 2nd
    • Move back & forth, but not rotate
    • Found in fingers
  • Saddle
    • Convex & concave areas form saddle
    • Found in thumb
slide38

Ball & socket

    • Sphere of one into socket of 2nd
    • Movement in all axes
    • Most freely moving
    • Found in shoulder & hip