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Slides cover Meiosis and Mendelian/ Nonmendelian outlines . Interphase. MITOSIS. MEIOSIS. Chiasma (site of crossing over). Parent cell (before chromosome replication). MEIOSIS I. Propase. Prophase I. Chromosome replication. Chromosome replication. Tetrad formed by

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slide3

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

Chiasma (site of

crossing over)

Parent cell

(before chromosome replication)

MEIOSIS I

Propase

Prophase I

Chromosome

replication

Chromosome

replication

Tetrad formed by

synapsis of homologous

chromosomes

Duplicated chromosome

(two sister chromatids)

2n = 6

.

Chromosomes

positioned at the

metaphase plate

Tetrads

positioned at the

metaphase plate

Metaphase I

Metaphase

Anaphase

Sister chromatids

separate during

anaphase

Anaphase I

Homologues

separate

during

anaphase I;

sister

chromatids

remain together

Telophase

Telophase I

Haploid

n = 3

Daughter

cells of

meiosis I

2n

2n

MEIOSIS II

Daughter cells

of mitosis

n

n

n

n

Daughter cells of meiosis II

Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II

spermatogenesis

Epididymis

Seminiferous tubule

Testis

Cross section

of seminiferous

tubule

Spermatogenesis

Spermatogonium

Sertoli cell

nucleus

Mitotic division, producing

large numbers of spermatogonia

Differentiation and onset of meiosis I

Primary spermatocyte

(in prophase of meiosis I)

Meiosis I completed

Secondary spermatocyte

Meiosis II

Lumen of

Seminiferous tubule

Early

spermatids

Spermatids

(at two stages of

differentiation)

Differentiation

Neck

Sperm cells

Tail

Midpiece

Head

Plasma membrane

Acrosome

Nucleus

Mitochondria

oogenesis in the ovaries

Ovary

Primary germ cell

in embryo

Differentiation

Oogonium

in ovary

Oogonium

Mitotic

division

Primary

oocyte

within

follicle

Oogenesis in the ovaries

Primary

oocyte

Completion of meiosis I

and onset of meiosis II

Growing

follicle

Secondary

oocyte

First polar body

Ovulation

Mature follicle

Entry of sperm

triggers

completion

of meiosis II

Ruptured

follicle

Second polar body

Ovum

Ovulated

secondary oocyte

Corpus luteum

Degen-

erating corpus luteum

slide11

MITOSIS

MEIOSIS

Chiasma (site of

crossing over)

Parent cell

(before chromosome replication)

MEIOSIS I

Propase

Prophase I

Chromosome

replication

Chromosome

replication

Tetrad formed by

synapsis of homologous

chromosomes

Duplicated chromosome

(two sister chromatids)

2n = 6

Chromosomes

positioned at the

metaphase plate

Tetrads

positioned at the

metaphase plate

Metaphase I

Metaphase

Anaphase

Sister chromatids

separate during

anaphase

Anaphase I

Homologues

separate

during

anaphase I;

sister

chromatids

remain together

Telophase

Telophase I

Haploid

n = 3

Daughter

cells of

meiosis I

2n

2n

MEIOSIS II

Daughter cells

of mitosis

n

n

n

n

Daughter cells of meiosis II

Sister chromatids separate during anaphase II

independent assortment

Key

Maternal set of

chromosomes

Possibility 2

Possibility 1

Paternal set of

chromosomes

Independent Assortment

Two equally probable

arrangements of

chromosomes at

metaphase I

Metaphase II

Daughter

cells

Combination 3

Combination 2

Combination 4

Combination 1

test cross

Dominant phenotype,

unknown genotype:

PP or Pp?

Recessive phenotype,

known genotype:

pp

Test Cross

If Pp,

then 1 2 offspring purple

and 1 2 offspring white:

If PP,

then all offspring

purple:

p

p

p

p

P

P

Pp

Pp

Pp

Pp

P

P

pp

pp

Pp

Pp

independent assortment1

Key

Maternal set of

chromosomes

Possibility 2

Possibility 1

Paternal set of

chromosomes

Independent Assortment

Two equally probable

arrangements of

chromosomes at

metaphase I

Metaphase II

Daughter

cells

Combination 3

Combination 2

Combination 4

Combination 1

epistasis

BbCc

BbCc

Sperm

bC

Bc

1

1

1

1

BC

bc

4

4

4

4

Epistasis

1

BC

BBCC

BbCC

BBCc

BbCc

4

1

bC

BbCC

bbCC

BbCc

bbCc

4

BBcc

Bbcc

BBCc

BbCc

1

Bc

4

bbcc

Bbcc

1

bbCc

bc

BbCc

4

9

3

4

16

16

16

polygenic inheritance norm of the reaction

AaBbCc

AaBbCc

aabbcc

Aabbcc

AaBbcc

AaBbCc

AABbCc

AABBCc

AABBCC

Polygenic Inheritance&Norm of the Reaction

20/64

15/64

Fraction of progeny

6/64

1/64

slide30

First generation

(grandparents)

Ww

ww

ww

Ww

Second generation

(parents plus aunts

and uncles)

.

Ww

ww

ww

Ww

Ww

ww

Third

generation

(two sisters)

WW

ww

or

Ww

Widow’s peak

No widow’s peak

Dominant trait (widow’s peak)

slide31

First generation

(grandparents)

Ff

Ff

ff

Ff

Second generation

(parents plus aunts

and uncles)

FF or Ff

ff

ff

Ff

Ff

ff

.

Third

generation

(two sisters)

ff

FF

or

Ff

Free earlobe

Attached earlobe

Recessive trait (attached earlobe)