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Media (1). Chapter 15 Xiao Huiyun December, 2004. Division of media. Introduction.

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media 1

Media (1)

Chapter 15

Xiao Huiyun

December, 2004

  • Television viewing is Britain’s most popular pastime. The average Briton spends more than three and a half hours per day watching television, including videotapes. More than 97 percent of Britain’s households have a color television and 73 percent have a videocassette recorder (VCR). Practically every home has a radio, and about 70 percent of the population listens to radio on a daily basis.
british national broadcasters
British National broadcasters
  • Public broadcasting
  • The largest UK broadcaster is the BBC which runs two national television channels (with national and regional sub-divisions), five national radio stations, cable and digital TV channels, and more than 40 local radio stations. The Corporation has global enterprises in both television and radio, as well as a broadcast monitoring service, and Europe's most visited content web site. Although predominantly a public service organization, which raises revenue from a universal licensing system, the BBC also operates commercially in many domains both inside and outside the UK
british national broadcasters1
British National broadcasters
  • Private broadcasting
  • Independent Television ITV (the Channel 3 companies) – 15 regionally based franchisees provide both local and national (network) services. In addition, GMTV operates a breakfast network service. The entire Channel 3 service is largely dominated by two companies, Carlton and Granada. They own or control 12 of the ITV franchises.
  • Channel 4 is a hybrid public service, minority interest service which also raises revenue through advertising sales. (There is a separate fourth channel in Wales, Sianel Pedwar Cymru [S4C], which is funded partly by advertising and partly by the State, and carries peak-time Welsh language programming.)
  • A fifth terrestrial channel began broadcasting in April 1997. Channel 5 is a commercial operation carrying advertising
the uk television
The five national networks (excluding satellite)

Cable and digital

Five national networks in the UK.

The UK Television
the main channels
The main channels
  • BBC 1 - since 1936, general interest programmes.
  • BBC 2 - minority and specialist interests.
  • ITV – (Channel 3 since 1955) is approximately 33% informative and 66% light entertainment.
  • Channel 4 - since 1982, 15% educational programmes, encourages innovation and experiment.
  • Channel 5 – since 1997
the bbc british broadcasting corporation
The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)
  • Six national stations.
  • Broadcasts: BBC 1, 2, 4, BBC News 24, BBC Choice, BBC Parliament.
  • Radio Channels.
  • No advertising.
  • Worldwide television services (BBC World, BBC Prime)
the division of programmes
The division of programmes
  • Light entertainment (variety shows, soap operas, situation comedies, game shows)
  • News/current affairs
  • Documentaries
  • Children’s TV
  • Music
  • Sport
  • Films/TV movies
  • Drama/plays
the content of bbc1 bbc2 programming for 2002 2003
The content of BBC1-BBC2 programming for 2002-2003


  • News 570 h. 100 h.
  • Current affairs 80 h. 230 h.
  • Drama
  • Comedy
  • Entertainment
  • Arts and music 200 h.
  • Factual 500 h.
  • Learning
  • Sport 430 h.
  • Religion 80-120 h. 20 h.
  • Events
  • Children’s – 400 h. 100 h.
british favourite tv shows
British favourite TV shows
  • “Are you being served?”
  • “Bless me father”
  • “Fawlty Towers”
  • “Mulberry”
  • “Yes, Prime Minister”
  • “Blackadder”
  • “Chef”
  • “Holmes”
british soap opera
The storylines of Coronation Street tend to concentrate on relationships within and between families rather than on topical or social issues

Coronation Street is imbued with a definite feeling of community. Through its account of supposedly everyday life, the programme shows a high degree of social realism

The Street, as it is affectionately known, has been at the top of the U.K. ratings for over thirty years.

Coronation Street

British Soap Opera
who regulates bbc itv
Who Regulates BBC & ITV?
  • The Broadcasting Standards Commission has responsibility for regulating the portrayal of violence and sexual conduct, and issues of taste and decency in all television, as well as handling complaints of invasions of privacy and unfair treatment.
  • The Independent Television Commission (ITC) (appointed by the government) regulates commercial television, and the Radio Authority commercial radio. All three statutory bodies have codes of practice and publish their findings on complaints.
who regulates bbc itv1
Who Regulates BBC & ITV?
  • BBC is ultimately responsible to parliament through its 12 publicly appointed governors (Board of Governors). Many of its plans have to be approved by Government Ministers. Vacancies for governors were advertised for the first time in 1998
  • For the most part, the UK media are regulated more by general law. In total, it is estimated, more than 140 pieces of legislation have specific relevance to the media, and litigation remains a favoured method (at least among those who can afford it) of bringing the media to account. Other forms of accountability have less effect.
who regulates bbc itv2
Who Regulates BBC & ITV
  • In 1990 the Broadcasting Act was passed in an attempt to guarantee standards of decency, accuracy in news coverage, and balanced presentations of controversial topics, while encouraging more competition in television and radio.
  • The Broadcasting Act passed in 1996 addressed the new digital technologies in broadcasting that would allow for more radio and television services to be made available to the public
bbc governors profiles
Gavyn Davies OBE

Lord (Richard) Ryder of Wensum

Sir Robert Smith

Professor Fabian Monds CBE

Professor Merfyn Jones

Ranjit Sondhi CBE

Dame Pauline Neville-Jones DCMG

Dermot Gleeson

Baroness (Sarah) Hogg

Angela Sarkis CBE

Dame Ruth Deech

Deborah Bull CBE

BBC Governors' Profiles
bbc executive committee
The BBC’s day-to-day operations are run by 16 divisions. Their directors report to the director-general, forming the Executive Committee.

The director-general is chief executive and editor-in-chief. BBC governors appoint the director-general and, with him/her, senior management

Each division's performance is regularly assessed by the BBC’s governors.

Every July, BBC governors publish an Annual Report to licence payers and Parliament which assesses the BBC's performance against objectives over the past year

BBC Executive Committee
basic principles for broadcasting
Basic Principles for Broadcasting
  • All the channels excepting Channel 4 are obliged by law to be impartial and neutral in dealing with social and political affairs. Channels 4 is allowed to show its neutrality across a series of programmes.( p244)
  • Public broadcasting should serve the purpose of entertaining, informing and educating the nation.( p250 )
the funding
The Funding
  • BBC 1 & BBC 2 – licence fees from viewers , sale of programmes, hire and sale of educational films based on programmes . Do not get any of their revenue through advertising.
  • BBC World – an advertiser funded channel, with 24-hour news, information and analysis.
  • ITV Channels 3, 4, 5 all profit-making, revenue from advertising see p244 for more details
basic principles for broadcasting1
Basic Principles for Broadcasting
  • There should not be political bias and the presentation of sex and violence on the screen.( p248 )
  • At least 86% of all programmes in the peak viewing period on ITV and Channel 4 must come from British or European sources. (p244)
  • Decent standard should be maintained (p248)
  • The BBC has five radio networks that broadcast throughout Britain
  • There are also three independent national radio services (classical music, rock music, and talk radio), and about 200 independent local radio services.
  • These independent radio services are awarded licenses by the Radio Authority
  • BBC World Service Radio broadcasts around the world in English and 45 other languages, carrying extensive programs and high-quality news broadcasts.
the brief history of british radio
1922: BBC started daily broadcasting on 2LO on 14 Nov. The first voice was Arthur Burrows, reading the news.

1922: 15 Nov: 5IT and 2ZY became first BBC stations outside London.

1967: On 30th September, BBC radio reorganisation launched Radio's 1,2,3 and 4.

1967: "Third Programme“ and"National Programme" replaced 2LO. The "Regional Programme", an alternative service, started later this year.

The brief history of British radio
the brief history of british radio1
1973: Birth of independent (commercial) radio, with LBC and Capital Radio in London.

1988: First commercial station 'split' frequencies.

1990: IBA split into ITC 1991: Radio 1 goes 24 hours on 1 May.

1992: Launch of Classic FM, Britain's first national commercial radio station.

1995: Talk Radio began broadcasting on 14 Feb.

1993: Launch of Virgin 1215.

1996: New rules on cross-media ownership heralds further change in the radio industry.

The brief history of British radio
the most popular british radio stations
The most popular British radio stations
  • Clare FM
  • Anna Livia
  • Live 95
  • Welsh Radio International
  • Imperial College radio
  • Capital FM
  • BBC Radio 2