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Navigation Study Guide### Chapter 6: Piloting

Instructor: Forrest Meiere

All Questions and Problems

from the Study Guide

PowerPoint Presentation

by Forrest Meiere

Navigation Study Guide

S6-l. What distinguishes PILOTING from other branches of navigation?

The reference to charted landmarks, ATONs and depth soundings.

S6-2. Why are LOPs drawn on buoys (floating atons) to be treated with caution?

Buoys can be sunk or off station. (Buoys can be moved and the new position may not be on the chart being used.)

Navigation Study Guide

S6-3. What is the proper way to label an LOP?

On its top with the time of observation (24 hour system) and on the bottom with the bearing from the vessel to the object.

S6-4. How can a relative bearing be used to plot an LOP?

Add the relative bearing to the true heading to obtain an LOP.

Navigation Study Guide

S6-5. How can a range be used to obtain an LOP if no bearing was obtained for the range?

Extend the range until it crosses the course line. As with any LOP, record the time the alignment occurred on the top of the LOP

S6-6. A circle of position is based on a measurement of distance to the charted object. What methods of measuring distance are generally available to the navigator?

- RADAR
- Measurement of vertical angle with a sextant
- Range Finder

Navigation Study Guide

S6- 7. When using the height of an object printed on the l2l0-Tr chart, what are the units used and what is the reference (datum) for the measurement?

feet; Mean High Water

S6-8. List six type of FIXES discussed in the text.

- Cross Bearing; b. Range and Bearing;
- c. Two Ranges; d. Two Distances;
- e. Distance and Bearing of Object;
- f. Passing close to a fixed Aid to Navigation.

Navigation Study Guide

S6-9. What factors can affect the accuracy of an LOP?

a. Inaccurate measurement of relative bearings

b. Mathematical Errors

c. Inaccurate Compass Readings

d. Inaccurate Plotting

S6-10. How are visual FIXES labeled?

A point with a full circle around it and the time (in 24 hour format) parallel to the horizontal base of the chart

Navigation Study Guide

S6-11. List the steps necessary to plot a running fix.

- Allow for a time lapse between the 1st and 2nd bearing
- One LOP is advanced by moving it parallel to itself in the direction of the course line for the distance traveled. The intersection of these two LOPs is the Running Fix.
- A new dead reckoning plot is started at the position of the R FIX
- d. Avoid advancing an LOP more than 30 minutes

End of Questions

Navigation Study Guide

PROBLEMS: Use the 1210- Tr chart and the deviation table in Lesson 2.

P6-1. With the object dead ahead (RB 000°), plot and label the following LOPs:

P6-1 OBJECT TIME BEARING

a. MONUMENT, CUTTYHUNK I. 6:13 p.m. 330

1813/330

b. CUPOLA, NAUSHON I.(NE) 9:30 a.m. 012C

0930/000

Navigation Study Guide

P6-1 OBJECT TIME BEARING

c. SPIRE, CHILMARK, 1 :00 p.m. 314C

MARTHA'S VINEYARD

1300/298

d. SPIRE, GAY HEAD 10:53 p.m. 168C

MARTHA'S VINEYARD

2253/150

e. WATER TOWER 10:16 a.m. 157C

WOODS HOLE

1016/140

f. TOWER 7:30 a.m. 288C

GOOSEBERRY NECK

0730/270

Navigation Study Guide

P6-1 OBJECT TIME BEARING

g. TOWER 8:01 a.m. 358C

GOOSEBERRY NECK

0801/345

h. BUTLER FLATS LIGHT 6:25 a.m. 334C

NEW BEDFORD

0625/320

i. NEW BEDFORD 6:25 a.m. 324C

R TR (WNBH)

0625/309

Navigation Study Guide

P6-1 OBJECT TIME BEARING

j. TOWER, WEST ISLAND 3:28 a.m. 288C

0328/270

k. SOUTH TIP, PENIKESE I. 2:31 p.m. 039C

1431/030

l. RADAR TOWER midnight12:00 005C

MARTHA'S VINEYARD

0000/352

Navigation Study Guide

P6-2. Plot and label the following ranges:

P6-2 TIME OBJECT (A) OBJECT (B)

a. 2:15 a.m. GAY HEAD, SPIRE GAY HEAD LIGHT

Alt Gp Fl (3)&(1) R 40 s

0215

b. 2: 15 p.m. MARTHA'S VINEYARD

CHILMARK SPIRE RADAR TOWER

1415

c. 3:12 p.m. MARTHA'S VINEYARD

LOOKOUT TOWER AERO Rot W & G

1512

Navigation Study Guide

P6-2 TIME OBJECT (A) OBJECT (B)

d. 12:23 a.m. WOODS HOLE

DOME WATER TOWER

0023

e. 7:35 a.m. ROUND HILL POINT

WINDMILL TANK

0735

f. 8:35 p.m. NASHAWENA ISLAND

MONUMENT HOUSE

2035

g. 11 :23 a.m. CUTTYHUNK ISLAND

MONUMENT LOOKOUT TOWER

1123

Navigation Study Guide

P6-2 TIME OBJECT (A) OBJECT (B)

h. 6:28 p.m. CUTTYHUNK I. NASHAWENA I.

LOOKOUT TOWER MONUMENT

1828

i. 9:13 a.m. MARTHA'S VINEYARD

MENEMSHAPOND RADAR TOWER ENTRANCE LIGHT

0913

j. 10:17 p.m. FALMOUTH

TOWER STACK

2217

Navigation Study Guide

P6-3. Plot and label the following Circles of Position:

- OBJECT TIME DISTANCE(M)
- GAY HEAD 10:15 p.m. 3.1
- Alt Gp PI (3) W & (1) R
- 40 Sec 170 ft 17 M

2215

D 3.1

D3.7

0715

D 2.0

b. CUTTYHUNK ISLAND 7:15a.m. 2.0

LOOKOUT TOWER

0625

D 4.2

c. MARTHA'S VINEYARD 6:25 a.m. 4.2

LOOKOUT TOWER

Navigation Study Guide

OBJECT TIME DISTANCE(M)

d. GAY HEAD SPIRE 8:25 a.m. 6.5

0825

D 6.5

1428

D 5.0

e. MARTHA'S VINEYARD 2:28 p.m. 5.0

AERO Rot W & G

f. NOMANS LAND 11 :38 p.m. 5.2

NORTH TIP

2338

D 5.2

0003

D 3.2

g. PENIKESE I. 12:03 a.m. 3.2

SOUTH TIP

Navigation Study Guide

OBJECT TIME DISTANCE(M)

h. WOODS HOLE 3:15 p.m. 2.6

WATER TOWER

1515

D 2.6

1818

D 1.8

i. BUTLER FLATS LIGHT 6:18 p.m. 1.8

D3.7

j. GOOSEBERRY NECK 5:27 p.m. 1.9

TOWER

1727

D 1.9

1300

D3.7

- BUZZARD'S LIGHT 1:00 p.m. 3.7
- PI 2.5sec 101ft 22M HORN

Navigation Study Guide

P6-4. At 10:30 p.m., while on a course of C231 at 10.0 kn, from Buoy "27" FIG 4 sec BELL, in Vineyard Sound, you note a light flashing every six seconds on the starboard beam (090R) when your heading is 251C.

C231

S10.0

a. Draw the course line and label it:

2230

321

b. Plot the bearing and label it:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-5. While heading 251C, at 7:00 p.m. south of PASQUE Island, you note a flashing green light every four seconds off your port bow (315R). Plot the bearing and label it.

1900

186

Navigation Study Guide

P6-6. The MONUMENT on NASHAWENA ISLAND can be seen off the starboard bow (045R) while on heading 25lC at 9:30 a.m.

Plot the bearing and label it.

0930

276

Navigation Study Guide

6-7 . On another day at 6:25 a.m., while running C262C at S 10.0, you sight the CUTTYHUNK ISLAND MONUMENT on the starboard beam over the vessel's compass at 090R. At the same time you note that the MONUMENT and the HOUSE on NASHA WENA ISLAND are in range.

a. What is the compass bearing of the CUTTYHUNK MONUMENT?

352C

b. Plot and label the FIX, and determine its latitude and longitude:

DOT WITHIN CIRCLE, 0625

L: 41° 22.8'N Lo: 70° 55.4W

Navigation Study Guide

6-8. Southeast of GAY HEAD on MARTHA'S VINEYARD at 1527, you are barely making way, and you take a bow bearing of 322C on GAY HEAD SPIRE. You then turn the boat toward the AERO Rot W & G beacon at the airport on MARTHA'S VINEYARD and obtain a bearing of 029C.

a. Plot and label these two LOPs and the resulting FIX:

15271527

307019

DOT WITHIN CIRCLE, 1527

b. What is the position of the FIX?

L: 41° 15.7'N Lo: 70° 40.4'W

Navigation Study Guide

6-9. At 0625 you are between NASHAWENA ISLAND and GAY HEAD and note that the MONU- MENT and HOUSE on NASHAWENA ISLAND are in range. You also note that the SPIRE and the light on GAY HEAD (Alt Gp PI (3) W & (1) R 40 sec, 170 ft 17 M) are in range. Plot these two LOPs and plot and label the FIX they form.

FIX label: DOT WITHIN CIRCLE, 0625

What is the position of the FIX?

L: 41° 22.8'N Lo: 70° 55.4'W

Navigation Study Guide

6-10. At 0715, while on course ofC288C at ordered speed of 10.0 to, you detect a strong PIP on the RADAR at the NW tip of GAY HEAD, range 5.6M. You also notice a good PIP about the center of CUTTYHUNK ISLAND which you decide is the TOWER and measure the range at 5.1M.

Plot and label these two LOPs and the FIX they determine.

DOT WITHIN CIRCLE, 0715 RADAR

a. FIX label:

L: 41° 20.3'N Lo: 70° 57.5'W

b. Position:

083

c. Bearing to PIP on GAY HEAD:

012

d. Bearing to PIP on CUTTYHUNK:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-11. While underway at 2215 on course C239C, you take a RADAR distance (5.1M) and bearing (082R) on the North tip of NOMANS LAND. Plot and label the LOPs, determine and label the FIX, and provide its position.

DOT WITHIN CIRCLE, 2215 RADAR

a. FIX label:

L: 41°13.2'N Lo: 70° 043.2'W

b. Position:

2215, 5.1

c. Range LOP:

2215, 302

d. Bearing LOP:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-12. While underway on C23l/Sl0.0 from Buoy "27" PI G 4 sec BELL, approximately three miles southwest of WOODS HOLE entrance in VINEYARD SOUND, you take a bearing on the light at the head of TARPAULIN COVE, NAUSHON ISLAND, PI 6 sec 78 ft 9 M, at bearing 090R at 5: 15 p.m. At 5:33 p.m. you take a bearing on the light at GAY HEAD, Nt Gp PI (3) W & (1) R 40 sec, bearing 341R while on course.

C231

S10.0

a. Plot and label the course line:

1715

321

b. Plot and label the 5:15 p.m. LOP:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-12. (Continued)

C231

S10.0

c. Plot and label the 5:33 p.m. LOP:

1715-1733

321

d. Advance the 5: 15 LOP to 5:33.

Plot and label.

e. Plot and label the RUNNING FIX:

1733 R FIX

f. Position:

L: 41° 24.7'N Lo: 70° 47.0'W

Navigation Study Guide

P6-13. Assume all the same facts as in problem 6-12 with the additional information that, over this time period, at 5:30 p.m. a 2.5 kn current is flowing in VINEYARD SOUND toward 231 true.

C231

S10.0

a. Plot and label the course line:

1715

321

b. Plot and label the 5: 15 p.m. LOP:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-13. (Continued)

1733

212

c. Plot and label the 5:33 p.m. LOP:

1715-1733

321

d. Advance the 5: 15 LOP to 5:33.

Plot and label.

e. Plot and label the RUNNING FIX:

1733 R FIX

L: 41° 24.0'N Lo: 70° 47.6'W

f. Position:

Navigation Study Guide

P6-14. While underway on C251C/S 10.0 in VINEYARD SOUND, you observe the light on GAY HEAD (Alt Gp PI (3) W & (1) R 40 sec) bearing 3l5R at 10:30 a.m. Nine minutes later the light is abeam (270R). Plot and label the RUNNING FIX and determine its position.

1039 R FIX

L: 41° 22.1'N Lo: 70° 51.4'W

Navigation Study Guide

P6-15. Continuing from the position determined in 6-14 above, establish a danger bearing using BUZ- ZARDS LIGHT (PI 2.5 sec 101 ft 22M HORN) to clear the Sow and Pigs Reef by .5 M. What are the true, magnetic, and compass (ship's head) danger bearings on the BUZZARDS LIGHT?

NLT 282TNLT 297MNLT 299C

Navigation Study Guide

P6-16. Departing at 6:11 p.m. from L: 41° l8.8'N Lo: 70° 5l.7'W, you are underway on C136C/S12.0. At 6:40 p.m. the CHILMARK SPIRE on MARTHA'S VINEYARD is observed to bear 236R while your heading is l36C.

C120

S12.0

a. Plot and label the course line:

b. Plot and label the 6:40 p.m. DR:

DOT WITHIN SEMICIRCLE and 1840 at angle

Navigation Study Guide

P6-16. (Continued)

1840

356

c. Plot and label the SPIRE LOP:

d. Plot and label an Estimated Position (EP) for the

6:40 p.m. LOP observation and determine its position:

DOT WITHIN SQUARE EP

L: 41° 15.9'N Lo: 70° 44.2'W

P6-17. Prove that an EP constructed from a DR position and a single LOP is generally closer to the true position than the DR position.

See discussion in Study Guide

End of Problems

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