Chapter 22 Infection Control. Infection Control. Infectious diseases Contagious or communicable diseases and community-acquired infections Persistence of infectious diseases The current public health problem of AIDS, HIV, and SARS. Facts and Myths About Transmission of HIV.
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Chapter 22 Infection Control
Infection Control • Infectious diseases • Contagious or communicable diseases and community-acquired infections • Persistence of infectious diseases • The current public health problem of AIDS, HIV, and SARS
Infection • Infection: condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host • Colonization: condition that results when microbes are present but host is without signs or symptoms of infection • Progress of infections through distinct stages
Question • Is the following statement true or false? Colonization is a condition that results when microorganisms cause injury to a host.
Answer False. Colonization is a condition in which microorganisms are present, but the host does not manifest any signs or symptoms of infection.
Infection Control Precautions • Infection control precautions: physical measures designed to curtail the spread of infectious diseases • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Infection Control Precautions (cont’d) • Standardprecautions • Standard precautions reduce transmission of microorganisms from both recognized and unrecognized sources • Followed when potential exists for contact with blood, all body fluids except sweat, nonintact skin, mucous membranes
Infection Control Precautions (cont’d) • Transmission-based precautions • Airborne • Droplet • Contact
Question • Precautions that are used to reduce pathogen transmission from close contact, usually 3 feet or less, belong to which category of precautions? a. Droplet b. Contact c. Airborne d. Isolation
Answer a. Droplet Droplet precautions are measures that block pathogens within moist droplets larger than 5 microns. They are used to reduce pathogen transmission from close contact (usually 3 feet or less) between an infected person or a person who is a carrier of a droplet-spread microorganism and others.
Question • Is the following statement true or false? Transmission-based precautions are also calleduniversal precautions.
Answer False. Transmission-based precautions are also called isolation precautions and are measures for controlling the spread of infectious agents from clients known to be or suspected of being infected with highly transmissible or epidemiologically important pathogens.
Infection Control Measures • Personal protective equipment • The purpose and characteristics of cover gowns • Face-protection devices • Gloves
Infection Control Measures (cont’d) • Personal protective equipment (cont’d) • Removing personal protective equipment • Disposing of contaminated linen, equipment, and supplies • Double bagging
Infection Control Measures (cont’d) • Client environment • Infection control room • Equipment and supplies • Methods of discarding biodegradable trash • Removing reusable items • Delivering laboratory specimens • Transporting clients with infectious diseases
Question • Is the following statement true or false? Biodegradable trash can be flushed down the toilet in the client’s room.
Answer True. Biodegradable trash is refuse that will decompose naturally into less complex compounds. It includes items such as unconsumed beverages, paper tissues, the contents of drainage collectors, urine, and stool. All these items can be flushed down the toilet in the client’s room.
Psychological Implications • Being attentive to client sensibilities • Promoting social interaction • Combating sensory deprivation
Nursing Implications • Frequently identified nursing diagnoses when caring for clients with infectious diseases • The nursing diagnosis of risk for infection transmission • Imparting of infection prevention teaching measures to client and family
General Gerontologic Considerations • Susceptibility to infections among older clients due to decreased immune system function and inadequate fluid/nutrition intake • Subtler symptoms of infections among older adults • Infections more likely to have a rapid course and life-threatening consequences once established
General Gerontologic Considerations (cont’d) • Change in behavior and mental status can signal infectious process • The high incidence of TB among older adults, especially those in long-term care • Maintaining intact skin is excellent first-line defense against nosocomial infections • Prompt perineal hygiene is best technique for preventing urinary tract infections