Economic and Cultural Revival The Crusades were a stepping stone in the cultural and technological advancement of Western civilization.
Agriculture • New ___________________ • More soil open for cultivating • ________________ replaces ox yoke • Horses can now plow (faster) • _______________________crop rotation • improved production
Manorial system • Feudalism • ___________________________between nobles • Manorialism • __________________________between lords and peasants
Lords, Peasants, and Serfs Serfdom Free People • Manors owned by wealthy lords, knights • Peasants farmed manor fields • Were given protection, plots of land to cultivate for selves • Most peasants on farm were serfs, tied to manor • Not slaves, could not be sold away from manor • But could not leave, marry without lord’s permission • Manors had some free people who rented land from lord • Others included landowning peasants, skilled workers like blacksmiths, millers • Also had a priest for spiritual needs The Manorial System The feudal system was a political and social system. A related system governed medieval economics. This system was called the manorial system because it was built around large estates called manors.
Rotation Small Village • One field planted in spring for fall harvest • Another field planted in winter for spring harvest • Third field remained unplanted for year • Each manor included fortified house for noble family, village for peasants, serfs • Goal to make manor self-sufficient • Typical manor also included church, mill, blacksmith A Typical Manor • Most of manor’s land occupied by fields for crops, pastures for animals • Middle Ages farmers learned that leaving field empty for year improved soil • In time, practice developed into three-field crop rotation system
Peasant Household: Cycle of Labour • Houses a single room: few windows and no chimney…little privacy • August September- _______________ • October – _____________________________ • November – ________________________ • Feb. March – ________________________ • Summer – __________________________
Feast Days Food and Drink • Christmas, Easter and Pentecost • Saint’s days • Over 50 days of the year. • _____________(dark and heavy) and ___________(3 gallons)
Trade • Rebirth of towns led to expansion of trade, towns flourish. • _____________, _____________and ______________important Mediterranean trading towns • Silks and spices • __________________ • textiles • Center of trade in on north coast
Banking • Money economy arose out of __________________________________________________________________ • Led to growth of banking • Feudal lords become dependent on money, serfs become able to ____________________ • Decline in feudalism
Growth of towns • Towns grow up along __________________________ • _____________________________protected against marauding bandits (burg –German walled city) • Narrow winding streets, no sanitation, dirty, noisy, thatched roofs fire prone, disease prone. (Black Death)
Guilds • _________________ guilds • Maintain local monopoly for members • Foreign traders restricted • Pricing uniform • _________________ guilds • Regulated work of artisans • Price controls, advertising controls, standards of quality
Craft guilds • ______________________ • Worked for a master without pay to learn craft • ____________________ • Works for pay under a master • Upon approval of masterpiece, could become a master • __________________________ • Owned own shop and tools
Rise of middle class • Town (burg) leads to _______________________ • Bourgeoisie • Burgher • burgesses • towns people derived wealth not from the land; __________________________________________________________________ • Kings depend on middle class for loans and tax income
Town government / feudal lords • Urban dwellers lived outside the feudal system and resented paying taxes and services to lords • Wanted their own government and laws • Feudal lords respond with __________________________________________________________________________
Town government • Money economy gave towns income and independence from lords • Italy • ___________________ led to independent city states • Europe • __________________granted by kings and nobles gave towns self government