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Signs of the Times The Calling and Beginning of Vatican II. Rev. John Mayo. End of World War II. Yalta Conference Establishment of UN Polish Question Future of Eastern Europe Division of Germany Potsdam Conference Nothing solved Nations begin to pick sides. Rebuilding of Europe.

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end of world war ii
End of World War II
  • Yalta Conference
    • Establishment of UN
    • Polish Question
    • Future of Eastern Europe
    • Division of Germany
  • Potsdam Conference
    • Nothing solved
  • Nations begin to pick sides
rebuilding of europe
Rebuilding of Europe
  • Germany
    • Divide Germany into four zones (British Plan)
    • Denatzification Policy
    • Churchill- Wants a strong united Germany
    • Stalin- Weak Germany so USSR can project power
rebuilding of europe1
Rebuilding of Europe
  • Germany- New atmosphere takes hold
    • Paris Agreement- Federal Republic of Germany established
    • German recovery: Wirtsschaftwunder
    • Berlin Wall
rebuilding of europe2
Rebuilding of Europe
  • France
    • 2 separate nations
      • Centralization of Power (Communists)
      • Tradition and History (Vichy Government, Church)
    • Communists elected (1944), declare 4th Republic
    • Toppled due to unsuccessful reclaiming of empire
    • De Gaul enters in
establishment of european cooperation
Establishment of European Cooperation
  • 1951- European Coal and Steel Community
  • 1958- European Economic Community
eastern europe
Eastern Europe
  • Westminster College, Fulton, MO:
    • From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.
union of soviet socialist republics
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • Stalin
    • Tries a command economy
      • 5 year plans
    • Rebuilds industry as far east as possible
    • Large Red Army
    • Make all minorities live like Russians
    • Rewrite history
    • 1953- Dies
union of soviet socialist republics1
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
  • 1953- Kruschev, Ministry of Agriculture
    • Comes to power with promise that he will not be another Stalin
    • With Eisenhower, enters into detente with the West
      • Fails
        • Berlin Wall
        • U-2 Incident and Gary Powers
        • Bay of Pigs
political state bi polar world
Political State- Bi Polar World
  • United States vs. USSR (Cold War)
    • Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)
      • US- Strategic Bombers, Rockets, Submarine-Based Missiles
      • USSR- Similar
vatican i
Vatican I
  • Called by Pius IX in 1869
  • 700 bishops arrive, but no one can guarantee that they will be safe
  • 2 Documents
    • Dei Filius
    • Pastor Aeternus
  • Council ends with Rome falling
state of the church
State of the Church
  • Pope Pius XII
    • Along with Churchill- understood the stakes
    • At same time- new teachings
      • Mystici Corporis (1943)
      • Divino Flentes Espiritu (1944)
      • Mediator Dei (1947)
      • Humani Generis (1950)
    • 1958- Dies (Pope for 19 years, 7 months)
state of theology
State of Theology
  • 3 Main Movements
    • Neo-Scholasticism
    • East of the Rhine
    • West of the Rhine
1958 conclave
1958 Conclave
  • Angelo Roncalli is elected (John XXIII) on October 28
    • Was a professor of Church History
    • Made secretary to his bishop
    • Diplomatic Corps
      • Turkey
      • France
1958 conclave1
1958 Conclave
  • John XXIII was seen to be a transition pope after the long pontificate of Pius XII
    • Similar to what we are living through now with John Paul II-Benedict XVI
january 25 1959
January 25, 1959
  • “Standing before you I tremble somewhat with emotion but am humbly resolute in my purpose to proclaim a twofold celebration: a diocesan synod for the city of Rome, and a general Council for the universal Church.” (John XXIII)
immediate response
Immediate Response
  • Unexpected and
  • Wide-ranging
  • Yet one thing was defiantly clear
    • Catholicism was going to be going through a change
synod of rome
Synod of Rome
  • First in Modern Era
  • Held January 24-31, 1960 at the Lateran
  • Failed
    • Lacked the structure to effect change
    • Diocese too fragmented
  • Yet, holding it is a victory
purpose of the council
Purpose of the Council
  • Every council prior to Vatican II in the Church had been called in response to a crisis
  • Vatican II was called not for a crisis response, but to
    • Increase commitment to the faith
    • To make greater room for charity
beginning of preparations
Beginning of Preparations
  • Clearly, these goals are not clear cut, so a commission was established to define what to speak about
  • 10 members of the commission; almost all of the Curia
    • President: Cardinal Tardini, Secretary of State
  • Curia determined to monopolize
a different council needs different preparation
A Different Council Needs Different Preparation
  • John XXIII did not want the council to be prepared for in the ordinary matter
    • Idea of questioners- vetoed
    • Ask for suggestions- 2,000 responses with 8,972 “vota” received
    • July 1960- work completed
official preparations
Official Preparations
  • June 5, 1960- Superno Dei Nutu establishes central commission with ten commissions
    • New- Apostolate on the laity and Activity of ordinary Christians in spreading the gospel
    • Broke the monopoly of the Curia somewhat, yet Roman network still vital
their work
Their Work
  • They consolidated the responses into 70 worthy projects over the course of two years
    • February 2, 1962- work concluded by John XXIII
    • Concilium of John XXIII set the date of the council to open October 11, 1962
features of the council
Features of the Council
  • As people looked ahead, three characteristics emerged:
    • 1. Not be expressly dedicated to unity among Christians
    • 2. Pastoral approach
    • 3. Bishops would be main players
  • Not a completion of Vatican I
summer of 62
Summer of ‘62
  • The Vatican finally took the lid off of preparations and sent the bishops 7 proposed schemata, or outlines:
    • Sources of Revelation
    • Deposit of Faith
    • Moral Order
    • Liturgy
    • Family
    • Social Communications
    • Church unity
  • Many bishops dislike, except liturgy
how would the council work
How Would the Council Work
  • Two levels of activity
    • Plenary assembly- Discussed and approved documents
      • Held in morning
    • Working Groups- Actually drafted the documents
      • Worked in afternoons
how would the council work1
How Would the Council Work
  • IBM Computers would be used to tally votes
  • Speeches would be given in Latin, with no simultaneous translation
    • Problem- no one really knows Latin and pronunciation different
the bishops arrive
The Bishops Arrive
  • Around 2,700 bishops descended upon Rome for the opening of the Council on October 11th
    • Bishops can be divided into four main groups:
      • Contented Catholic Countries (Italy, Spain, Ireland)
      • “Change” Catholic Countries (Germany, France, England, Canada, Australia, United States)
      • African and Asian countries
      • Latin American Catholic Countries
first general council
First General Council
  • Held Saturday, October 13th
    • Cardinal Tisserant, president
    • Proposal to vote on members of the commissions by Archbishop Felici, Secretary-General of the Council
    • Cardinal Achille Lienart of Lille then rises and says...
“We are not disposed to accept the list of candidates proposed to us until the Council meets again. We have had too little time to choose our own candidates, since the Council Fathers do not know one another well enough yet. We therefore ask for a further delay in order to get our bearings.”
Joseph Cardinal Frings, Archbishop of Cologne then rises to agree
  • Applause erupts
  • Cardinal Tiserant consults with others and then announces that the council was adjourned until the 16th.
  • First session lasted 15 minutes