Mk. PertanianBerlanjut PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Oleh: Smno.agroekotek.fpub.agst2013
MAKNA SAINTIFIK “PERTANIAN” PERTANIAN TROPIKA Biologi- Tanaman Teknologi : Bertanam Memelihara IKLIM BUDIDAYA TANAMAN AIR TANAH MANAJEMEN USAHATANI Sarana produksi: Tanah/lahan Benih / bibit Air Pupuk/Rabuk Pestisida/ Obat Tenaga Kerja JASAD DINAMIKA & RAGAM PANEN & PASCAPANEN KEBERLANJUTAN Penanganan Hasil ; Pengolahan; Pemasaran
PERMASALAHAN SERIUS dalam Pertanian Semakin meningkatnya biaya dan ketergantungan thd input eksternal (bahan kimia dan energi) Semakin menurunnya produktivitas tanah akibat erosi tanah dan kehilangan (pencucian) hara dari tanah Semakin meningkatnya ancaman residu bahan agrokimia thd kualitas dan keamanan pangan Semakin meningkatnya pencemaran air akibat pupuk dan pestisida
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN itu Apa? The word "sustain," from the Latin sustinere (sus-, from below and tenere, to hold), to keep in existence or maintain, implies long-term support or permanence.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN = SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE “Pertanian yg dapat berkembang secara tidak terbatas ke arah manfaat yg semakin besar bagi manusia, penggunaan sumberdaya yg lebih efisien, dan berkesetimbangan dg kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai untuk manusia dan spesies lainnya”. Manfaat bagi manusia Penggunaan sumberdaya yg efisien Lingkungan yg sesuai bagi manu-sia & spesies lain
TIGA ELEMEN PENTING PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Food availability and consumption (Pangan dan bahan konsumsi lain) Income Generation (menghasilkan pendapatan) Natural Resource Conservation (Konservasi Sumberdaya Alam)
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmentalstewardship, farmprofitability, and prosperous farmingcommunities.
KONSEP “LOW INPUT” PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN ECOLOGICAL FARMING BIOLOGICAL FARMING REGENERATIVE FARMING BIODYNAMIC FARMING LOW RESOURCES FARMING NATURAL FARMING AGROECOLOGICAL FARMING ECO-AGRICULTURE ECO-FARMING ORGANIC FARMING ALTERNATIVE FARMING
PRASYARAT BAGI PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN 1. Kualitas tanah tidak boleh rusak, topsoil tidak boleh menipis 2. Sumberdaya air tersedia harus mampu memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman, tdk berlebihan & tdk kekurangan 3. Integritas biologis dan ekologis harus dilestarikan melalui berbagai upaya pengelolaan sumberdaya genetik, siklus hara, hama tanaman, dll 4. Sistem harus menguntungkan secara ekonomis 5. Ekspektasi sosial dan norma budaya harus dipenuhi, spt kebutuhan sandang dan pangan masyarakat
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmentalstewardship, farmprofitability, and prosperous farmingcommunities. These goals have been defined by a variety of disciplines and may be looked at from the vantage point of the farmer or the consumer. DESKRIPSI Sustainable agriculture refers to the ability of a farm to produce food indefinitely, without causing severe or irreversible damage to ecosystem health. Two key issues are biophysical (the long-term effects of various practices on soil properties and processes essential for crop productivity) and socio-economic (the long-term ability of farmers to obtain inputs and manage resources such as labor).
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN As it pertains to agriculture, sustainable describes farming systems that are "capable of maintaining their productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely. Such systems... must be resource-conserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive, and environmentally sound."
CIRI PENTING PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN CROP ROTATION Field crop - Legume - Forage crop NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT Pupuk - Rabuk Kandang/Kompos - Rabuk Hijau Prod. TERNAK: Pakan hijauan Rabuk kandang Weed Control Olah tanah Selective Herbicides Pest Control: Biological control Pesticide treatment
PELUANG BESAR untuk PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Internal Soil External Hydrophonic Medium Sun: Radiasi Sumber utama energi Energi ini sbg katalis untuk konversi energi fosil Water Utamanya hujan dan Sistem distribusi air terpusat, ditunjang air irigasi Bendungan-waduk-jaringan Nitrogen Dihimpun dari udara Terutama dari pupuk sintetik dan di-daur ulang (pupuk buatan) Mineral dilepaskan dari cadangan Ditambang, diolah, diimpor tanah dan di daur-ulang Weed & pest Biologis & Mekanis Dengan pestisida control
PELUANG BESAR untuk PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Internal Soil Eksternal Hydrophonic Medium ENERGY Sebagian dihasilkan Tergantung bahan bakar on-farm fosil SEED Sebagian dihasilkan Semuanya/seluruhnya dibeli on-farm Management Oleh petani & masya- Sebagian dilakukan oleh decisions rakatnya produsen SAPROTAN ANIMALS Dihasilkan secara siner- Produksi pakan di tempat gis on-farm lain yg terpisah CROPPING- Rotasi dan diversitas Monocropping SYSTEM sangat diutamakan
PELUANG BESAR untuk PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Internal Soil External Hydrophonic Medium VARIETAS Tahan thd keterbatasan Memerlukan input yang air dan kesuburan tanah banyak LABOR Sebagian besar kerja Sebagian besar pekerjaan dilakukan rumahtangga dilakukan tenaga upahan bertempat-tinggal on-farm CAPITAL Sumber awal rumah- Sumber awal adalah kredit tangga & masyarakat; dan keuntungan terutama peningkatan kesejahteraan mengalir ke luar dari farm diinvestasikan secara lokal …………...
KOMPONEN-KOMPONEN SISTEM PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Pengelolaan Kesuburan Tanah Innovative Cropping Systems Pergiliran Tanaman Bioteknologi & Crop Breeding Integrated Pest Management Weeds Management Conservation Tillage Animals Roles Feedcrop Management
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Sustainable agriculture is one that produces abundant food without depleting the earth’s resources or polluting its environment. • It is agriculture that follows the principles of nature to develop systems for raising crops and livestock that are, like nature, self-sustaining. • Sustainable agriculture is also the agriculture of social values, one whose success is indistinguishable from vibrant rural communities, rich lives for families on the farms, and wholesome food for everyone. • But in the ﬁrst decade of the 21st Century, sustainable agriculture, as a set of commonly accepted practices or a model farm economy, is still in its infancy.
INTEGRATION OF CROP AND ANIMAL PRODUCTION SYSTEMS PRODUKSI TANAMAN RESIDU / LIMBAH TANAMAN RABUK KANDANG TANAMAN PAKAN DALAM ROTASI PRODUKSI TERNAK
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Farming sustainably means growing crops and livestock in ways that meet three objectives simultaneously: • Economic profit • Social benefits to the farm family and the community • Environmental conservation • Sustainability can be observed and measured; indicators that a farm or rural community is achieving the three objectives of sustainability include: economic, social, environment
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Economic Sustainability • The family savings or net worth is consistently going up. • The family debt is consistently going down. • The farm enterprises are consistently profitable from year to year. • Purchase of off-farm feed and fertilizer is decreasing. • Reliance on government payments is decreasing.
The farm enterprises are profitable from year to year: • Tumpangsari Pepaya dg padi gogo.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Social Sustainability • The farm supports other businesses and families in the community. • Money circulate within the local economy. • The number of rural families is going up or holding steady. • Young people take over their parents' farms and continue farming. • College graduates return to the community after graduation.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Environmental Sustainability • There is no bare ground. • Clean water flows in the farm's ditches and streams. • Wildlife is abundant. • Fish are prolific in streams that flow through the farm. • The farm landscape is diverse in vegetation.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • These three objectives are managed more as a single unit, even though we must discuss them separately. • The three objectives overlap constantly. For example, economic decisions affect the local community—buying from out of state instead of from a local supplier. • Environmental decisions affect the economics—allowing soil erosion increases the need for irrigation and more fertilizer.
Economic Sustainability • Selecting Profitable Enterprises to Ensure Economic Sustainability • Economic sustainability increasingly depends on selecting profitable enterprises, sound financial planning, proactive marketing, risk management, and good overall management. • The key for row-crop producers may be to explore income opportunities other than traditional commodity crops, such as contract growing of seeds for vegetable, rice and specialty crops.
These specialty crops are not for everyone; • only a certain number of hectares of land can be grown because of limited markets.
Economic Sustainability Selecting Profitable Enterprises to Ensure Economic Sustainability • Expanding organic markets suggest another possible niche. "Alternative" crops like herbs, mushrooms or guava may be an option. • When we try to produce a single product such as corn, or groundnuts our risk is high because "all our eggs are in one basket." • When we integrate plant and animal agriculture we distribute overhead and risk among several enterprises.
Economic Sustainability • Perencanaan keuangan yang komprehensif haruslah: • The holistic financial planning process provides a monthly roadmap to help people navigate through their financial year, assured that the profit will be there at year's end. • The income is planned first, then a planned profit is allocated as the first expense item. • The remaining expense money is allocated sequentially where it will do the most good.
Economic Sustainability • Perencanaan keuangan yang komprehensif haruslah: • This sequential allocation requires that the farmer spend no more than necessary to run the enterprise for a year, while preserving the planned profit. • This potent financial planning process empowers people to make decisions that are simultaneously good for the environment, the local community, and the bottom line. • Also evaluate other financial planning tools that allow enterprise budgeting, cost calculations, partial budgeting analysis, and these can be available from normal softwares available in the market.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Setiap usahatani memerlukan perencanaan pemasaran yang jelas. • Marketing can take many forms, ranging from passive marketing to the commodity chain all the way up to marketing a retail product directly to consumers. • Which marketing method you choose will have a profound effect on the price your product commands. • Doing some market research is essential in order to understand your market, competition, and consumer trends, and to project potential sales volume and prices. • Specialty and direct markets such as organic, GMO-free, and other "green" markets yield more income but require more marketing by the producer. • Pemasaran langsung tidak berlaku untuk setiap orang .
Social Sustainability Pengambilan keputusan usahatani berdampak langsung pada masyarakat sekitarnya . Misalnya, the decision to expand your operation requires the acquisition of your neighbor's farm. To have your neighbor's farm, you must make the decision that your neighbor's farm is more important to you than your neighbor.
Social Sustainability • Keputusan sosial termasuk: • buying supplies locally rather than ordering from out of state, • figuring out ways to connect local consumers with your farm, • taking a consumer-oriented approach to production and management practices where both the farmer and consumer wins, • finding opportunities to ensure that neighboring communities can learn about sustainable food production.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • Marketing strategies such as community supported agriculture (CSA), direct marketing through farmers markets or road side stalls all have a positive impact on the local community. • When people have a choice between supporting local producers or paying a little less for the products of the industrial food system, they will often choose to support their neighbors. • Farmers selling locally benefit from differentiating their products and services by qualities other than price. • Fresh produce, specialty items, and locally grown and processed foods are competitive in the market place, especially when consumer education and personal contact with the farmer are part of the marketing plan.
Marketing strategies , direct marketing through farmers markets or road side stalls all have a positive impact on the local community.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Social sustainability also includes the quality of life of those who work and live on the farm, including good communication, trust, and mutual support. Full family participation in farm planning is an indication that the quality of life is high. Talking openly and honestly, spending time together, a feeling of progress toward goals, and general happiness. Quality of life will be defined somewhat differently by each individual and family, based on their values and goals
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Perencanaan & Pengambilan Keputusan • Managing for three objectives simultaneously (economics, society, environment) depends on clear goal-setting and effective decision-making. • Several good tools for decision-making, goal-setting, and whole-farm management are available to farmers. • It is useful to assume that if your plan will not work, then develop a system for determining (as soon as possible) if it isn't working. • For example, if the goal includes increased biodiversity, the farmer needs to know—quickly—if the grazing or cropping system being used is actually increasing the number of plant species in the area of concern. • Monitoring is particularly important in sustainable agriculture, which relies on natural systems to replace some of the work done by input products like fertilizer and pesticides.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Kemampuan mengevaluasi dan merencanakan-kembali sangat penting bagi petani guna keberlanjutan ushataninya When part of the plan is not working as intended, it becomes necessary to replan. The concept of planning-monitoring-controlling-replanning is a key characteristic of Holistic- Management and is referred to as the feedback loop.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • The transition toward more sustainable farming requires not only planning and decision-making skills, but access to appropriate and helpful information. • Fortunately, increased interest in sustainable agriculture has stimulated greater investment in research and education. • As a result, much more usable information is available today than ever before, accessible through various means
Environmental Sustainability • Sustainable agriculture can be viewed as ecosystem management of complex interactions among soil, water, plants, animals, climate, and people. • The goal is to integrate all these factors into a production system that is appropriate for the environment, the people, and the economic conditions where the farm is located.
INTERAKSI DI ANTARA INPUT PUPUK Organik Anorganik TANAMAN ROTASI KULTIVASI Gulma Hama Penyakit PESTISIDA
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Farms become and stay environmentally sustainable by imitating natural systems—creating a farm landscape that mimics as closely as possible the complexity of healthy ecosystems. The wastes of industrial agriculture (non-point-source pollution) include suspended soil, nitrates, and phosphates in stream water, and nitrates and pesticides in ground water.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN Nature tends to function in cycles, so that waste from one process or system becomes input for another. Industrial agriculture, in contrast, tends to function in a linear fashion similar to a factory: inputs go in one end, and products and waste come out the other. It is a premise of sustainable agriculture that a farm is a nature-based system, not a factory.
CONTEXT OF SUSTAINABILITY 1. A low dependence on external / purchased inputs2. Menggunakan sumberdaya lokal yang “renewable” 3. Dampak lingkungan yang menguntungkan : on - farm & off - farm4. Adapted to the existing local conditions5. Long-term maintenance of productive capacity6. Biological & cultural diversity7. Knowledge of local inhabitants8. Mencukupi kebutuhan barang domestik dan barang dapat diekspor.
SISTEM PERTANIAN SISTEM ALAMIAH - Panen tanaman - Teknologi Pengelolaan - Pemupukan / perabukan - Pengolahan tanah - Pengairan - Aplikasi agrokimia - Agroteknologi lainnya.
PERTANIAN BERKELANJUTAN • The simpler we try to make agriculture, the more vulnerable we become to natural disasters and marketplace changes. • When we try to produce a single product such as wheat, corn, or soybeans we are taking on huge risk. • If instead we diversify crops and integrate plant and animal agriculture, overhead will be spread over several enterprises, reducing risk and increasing profit. • Table 1 offers some comparisons between two models of agriculture—farming as an industrial factory and farming as a biological system.
Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM On any farm, four major ecosystem processes are at work that, if functioning properly, will conserve the soil and water resources and eventually reduce the overall operating costs. Proses alamiah ini: flow, water and mineral cycles, and ecosystem dynamics— dapat diamati dan dapat dikelola.
Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM Energy flow is the non-cyclical path of solar energy (sunlight) into and through any biological system. The natural world runs on sunlight. Our management decisions affect how much of it is captured and put to good use on the farm. (Savory and Butterfield, 1999) Energy flow begins when sunlight is converted into plant growth, and continues when animals consume plants, when predator animals consume prey, and when microorganisms decompose dead plants and animals.
Farm as Ecosystem: AGROEKOSISTEM Some energy is lost as heat at every transfer point in the food chain. On the farm, energy capture is enhanced by maximizing—both in space and in time—the leaf area available for photosynthesis, and by efficiently cycling the stored solar energy through the food chain. Off-season cover crops, perennial vegetation, and intercropping are among the tools for capturing more solar energy. Menangkap energi-matahari dan mengubahnya menjadi produk-ekonomi merupakan sumber orisinal bagi semua kesejahteraan