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A Comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning Products in Southern California and Southern Guangdong. Problems and Challenges. 试比较南加州与南广东 之家庭环保化学产品. 并略论发展问题与挑戰.

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A Comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning ProductsinSouthernCalifornia and Southern Guangdong

Problems and Challenges

prof kwan ming chan b sc hku ph d liverpool england prof emeritus california state university

Prof. Kwan Ming ChanB.Sc. (HKU), Ph. D. (Liverpool, England)Prof. Emeritus, California State University

陈钧铭教授

香港大学理学士

英国利物浦大学博士

美国加州州立大学资优教授

co authors prof sun hui li and liu fengyang south china sea institute of oceanology academia sinica

Co-Authors: Prof. Sun Hui-Li and Liu Fengyang South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica

孙恢礼教授及刘凤艳女士

南海海洋研究所

中国科学院

objectives why comparing two regions
Objectives: Why comparing two regions?
  • Both are the major gateways in the Pacific
  • Lessons learned may serve as models
  • Southern California has abundant data for modeling
  • Both are in similar geographical location with high economic power
geographic and economic settings for two regions

Geographic and Economic Settings for two regions

太平洋两岸环境与经贸比較

us and china comparison
US and China -Comparison

中 China 美 USA

  • GDP (per capita)

$4,400 $37,600

  • Purchasing power 購买力(in trillion)

$5.7 $10.4

economic structure
Economic Structure 经济结耩

China USA

  • Agriculture 农业15% 2%
  • Industry工业 51% 18%
  • Service 服务 34% 80%
budget and expenditure
Budget and Expenditure

China USA

  • Budget 收入(trillion)

0.224 1.946

  • Expenditure支出(trillion)

0.267 2.052

trillion =1012, 万亿

quick facts calif vs usa
Quick Facts:Calif. Vs USA

Calif. USA

  • 人口Population,106 34 284
  • 屋价House value, K 211 119
  • 零售Retail sales,109 263 2460
  • 制造Manufacture, 109 379 3842

California is about 1/10 of USA

Guangdong economic power is a top-ranking province in China. GDP is about US $10,000.

calif vs usa
加州与美国相比 Calif Vs USA
  • 多少数族裔 More minority
  • 多外国出生 More foreign born
  • 高房价 Higher median house value
  • 高收入 Higher household income
  • 高人口密度 High population density

Similar situation for Southern Guangdong vs China

california vs guangdong
California加vs Guangdong粤

加 CA 粤 GD

人口Population,106 34 78

面积Area, 104 km2 41 18

经度Latitude32 to 42 20 to 25

纬度Longitude 114 to 124W 109 to 117E

海岸线Coastline, km 1935 3368

Guangdong has longer coastline and larger population.

southern california land use
Southern California Land Use南加州用地分配
  • 农业Uncommitted (Farming, Mining) 34%
  • 住房Housing 28%
  • 休闲Open Space/Recreation 20%
  • 工商Commerce/Industry 12%
  • 其他Others 6%

Southern California has rapid expansion in housing

some problems related to the expansion of urban areas
Some problems related to the expansion of urban areas
  • More waste discharges
  • Rapid change in coastal environment
  • More Red tides
  • More accidental discharges
  • Costly clean-up

Similar problems in both regions.

slide16

Waste discharge severely affected Lagoons in Calif.

<Batiquitos Lagoon

<San Elijo Lagoon

lagoon modification
Lagoon Modification
  • Formed after ice age
  • Open to tidal flushing
  • Shellfish and artifacts from Paleo-Indians (9000-3500 years ago)
  • Catholic Missions
  • Took over from Mexico

in 1848

development deterioration
Development, Deterioration
  • 1881 Railroad line
  • Crossing Bridges
  • Coastal Highway and Freeway
  • Limited Flushing
slide19

Aerial view showing narrow openings

  • Shallow basin and building of silts
  • Limited circulation and flushing
input source to the ocean southern california
Input source to the ocean- Southern California

109 cu m/year

  • Treated waste water 1.4
  • Industrial waste 0.25
  • Surface runoff 0.6
  • Cooling water 7.7
general characteristics of effluents southern california
General Characteristics of effluents, Southern California

in mg/liter

  • Suspended solids 335
  • BOD 120
  • COD 240
  • Oil and grease 19
  • Total Nitrogen 23
  • Phosphate 5
  • Detergent 4.8
general characteristics of storm water southern california
General characteristics of storm water, Southern California

in mg/liter

  • Oil and grease 1.5
  • Total Nitrogen 3.9
  • Phosphate 0.43
  • Detergent 0.1
compare storm water and effluent water
Compare storm water and effluent water
  • Oil and grease 19/1.5 =12.6
  • Total Nitrogen 23/3.9=5.9
  • Phosphate 5/.43=11.6
  • Detergent 4.8/.1=48

Effluent has at least 10 times more

general characteristics of sludge discharged into coastal ocean of southern california
General Characteristics of sludge discharged into coastal ocean of Southern California

in mg/liter

  • Suspended solids 5
  • Oil and grease 760
  • Total Nitrogen 590
  • Phosphate 130
  • Detergent 4.8
general characteristics of silt in storm water of southern california
General characteristics of siltin storm water of Southern California

in mg/liter

  • Oil and grease 1.5
  • Total Nitrogen 3.9
  • Phosphate 2
  • Detergent .1
compare sludge and silt in storm water
Compare sludge and silt in storm water
  • Oil and grease 760/1.5 =507
  • Total Nitrogen 590/3.9 =151
  • Phosphate 130/2= 65
  • Detergent 4.8/.1= 48

Sludge has at least 50 times more

mass emission rate of wastewater discharged in southern california
Mass emission rate of wastewater discharged in Southern California

in metric tons/year

  • Suspended solids 278,000
  • BOD 291,000
  • COD 675,000
  • Oil and grease 65,000
  • Total Nitrogen 85,400
  • Phosphate 13,300
  • Detergent 7,600
detergent phosphates
Detergent Phosphates
  • Form: sodium tri-polyphosphate
  • About 30-40% of Phosphorus in waste water from cleaning products
  • To-day, there are non-P detergent, but most still have 6-8% P
action of phosphates
Action of Phosphates
  • Peptize and help dirt suspension
  • Aid in germ killing
  • Buffer the pH in removal of fatty soils
  • Make surfactant more effective by breaking up surfactant polymeric units.
basic c omponents about 90 by weight
Basic Components (about 90% by weight)
  • Surfactant -

Bipolar organic to lift off grease by lowering surface tension

  • Builder – Phosphates

Soften water by removing Ca and Mg

other components
Other components
  • Silicate – corrosion inhibitor
  • Carboxymethylcellulose – anti-redeposition agent to keep removed dirt from resettling onto clothes during the washing cycle
other common chemicals in the detergents
Other Common Chemicals in the detergents
  • 2-butoxyethanol
  • Malic Acid
  • Diethylene Glycol Monbutyl Ether (lysol)
  • Isobutane
  • NTA (nitrilotriactate) –subsituted for P
undesirable effect of highly alkaline chemicals
Undesirable effect of highly alkaline chemicals
  • Higher alkaline – alter fabrics
  • Skin or internal organ damage
  • Higher cost
  • Interaction with trace metals, increase in transmission, may cause birth defects
tea tree melaleuca alternifolia natural product as cleanser
Tea Tree - Melaleuca Alternifolia(natural product as cleanser)

Other Common Names: Manuka, Melaleuca alternifolia

  • Range: Australia - New South Wales, Queensland; East Indies.
  • Haitat: Swamps by the coast. Requires a fertile, well-drained moisture retentive lime-free soil in full sun.
  • An essential oil is obtained from the leaves. It is strongly germicidal and is also used in dentistry, deodorants, soaps, mouthwashes etc
top 5 brands companies of detergent in china
Top 5 Brands/Companies of detergent in China
  • Diao/Zhejang Nice Chemical Co.
  • Omo/Unilever China Ltd.
  • Liby/Guangzhou Liby Co., Ltd
  • Qiqiang/Shangxi Nafine Chemicals Ltd
  • Tide/Procter & Gamble (Guangzhou) Ltd

Most are in joint-venture with foreign companies, similar in chemical composition

outlook
Outlook
  • China had the highest GDP growth, nearly 8%.
  • GDP per capita in China is nearly $1,000
  • Retail sales growth of 8.8%
  • China is undergoing another phase of more environmental conscientious
development of friendly household chemicals markets
Development of friendly household chemicals markets
  • Thirty-eight million urban families currently can afford to spend the nearly US $12,000 
  • Over 70% of the World’s top retailers – Wall Mart, Carrefour, Metro, etc are now in China. 
  • The market for toiletries and cosmetics has passed US $3 billion and is expected to reach US $22 billion by 2013. 
the challenge of environmental friendly household chemicals
The challenge of environmental friendly household chemicals
  • Advertising - Television is the dominant medium with over 1 billion daily viewers
  • Use of local natural products for improvement of antiseptic and fragrance
  • Improvement of tertiary sewage treatment to remove phosphate
  • Use of soap in general cleaning