Collaborative Writing Brittany Townsley Elkhart Central High School LMWP 2011 Brittml01@yahoo.com
My Questions How can I restructure the research paper for low-level students without losing any of the importance? How can I motivate students to complete the arduous tasks surrounding the research paper?
Guiding Thought • There are five defining elements of cooperative learning: • Positive interdependence • Individual accountability • Promotive interaction • Social skills • Group processing • David Johnson & Roger Johnson
Journal Recall your experience with writing research papers. How were you taught or how did you teach yourself? What part of this experience was beneficial? Which strategies should have been modified to help you better gain these skills?
When you are finished Share these strategies with your small group. Your group should create a T Chart listing the “Good” strategies used to teach the research paper and the “Not-so-good” strategies Next, share with the whole group.
The Research Paper Not-so-good Strategies No real purpose or audience Focus too much on format Too much process and lacks writing Sentence outline Too broad Spewing and connecting quotes Good Strategies • Choose topic • Limited choice • Structure • Explicit expectations • Discovery process • Reflection • Organization
The Facts • Cooperative learning has an effect size of .78 when compared with instructional strategies in which students work on tasks individually. • Robert Marzano
Student Work With your group, choose a group of essays to answer the following questions:
Google Docs https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1T6cdP6YQSu11QgPEtJ4xCO04LZhbXx4riLewu2chqtU https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1bNnBPycYg6wPkdiFey7mPSW65QG0kg6Y8JIY7GtxPoM https://docs.google.com/document/d/1sGYNbKBLEuSZ2PQXpR7ALo2s6ZPmYQxskHuPIww9i90/edit?hl=en_US
Student Work 1. Which restaurant is researched? 2. What is the group trying to prove about the restaurant? 3. What is the evidence the group uses to prove their thesis?
How this works- Prewriting Students are placed in groups based on similar interests Group brainstorms for a possible thesis Group brainstorms ways to prove their thesis Each group member chooses one way to prove the thesis, which they will research
How this works- Researching Each group member finds at least one source on their chosen topic Each group member shares their source with the rest of the group
How this works- The Paper Each student writes his/her OWN paper The only similarities are the thesis and some facts found in the common sources
Timeline Week 1: Form groups, develop thesis, assign roles, outline introduction Week 2: Learn about school databases, research in computer lab, take notes/highlight sources Week 3: Share sources with group, outline body paragraphs, rough draft body paragraphs, peer edit Week 4: In-text citations, bibliography, conclusion, type final draft.
Try it! • With your group, complete the prewriting in order to go through the group process. • Look at your given topic • Narrow down your topic into a specific focus • Choose topics to support your focus • Choose who is researching what topic • How does it feel going through this process with a group? • What would happen if you didn’t do your part?
Review- My Questions How can I restructure the research paper for low-level students without losing any of the importance? How can I motivate students to complete the arduous tasks surrounding the research paper?
Reflection How is this similar or different to how you teach or were taught the research paper? How can cooperative learning help your students? What are the potential benefits of writing an essay cooperatively?
Final Thought • Collaborative writing provides a social context of learning, fosters interdependence as well as a sense of independence for learners. In the process of collaboration…students learn how to write from their peers, share knowledge and make decisions collectively, deal with disagreements and conflicts, utilize strategies, and make the collaboration a beneficial experience for everyone through teamwork and cooperation. • Yong Mei Fung
Sources http://www.cehd.umn.edu/research/highlights/coop-learning/ Classroom Instruction that Works by Robert J. Marzano, Debra J. Pickering, & Jane E. Pollock (2001) Collaborative Writing Features by Yong Mai Fung (Found in RELC journal, 41 (1) 18-30, 2010)