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Work in the 21 st Century Chapter 9. Attitudes, Emotions, & Work. Mel Curtis/Getty Images. Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction. Job satisfaction Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job. Job Satisfaction – Brief History. Early period of job satisfaction research

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work in the 21 st century chapter 9
Work in the 21st CenturyChapter 9

Attitudes, Emotions, & Work

Mel Curtis/Getty Images

module 9 1 job satisfaction
Module 9.1: Job Satisfaction
  • Job satisfaction
    • Positive attitude or emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job
job satisfaction brief history
Job Satisfaction – Brief History
  • Early period of job satisfaction research
      • Found both job-related & individual difference variables might influence job satisfaction
      • Hawthorne effect
        • Change in behavior or attitudes that was the simple result of increased attention
figure 9 2 presumed antecedents correlates consequences of job satisfaction
Figure 9.2: Presumed Antecedents, Correlates, & Consequences of Job Satisfaction
measurement of job satisfaction overall vs facet satisfaction
Measurement of Job SatisfactionOverall vs. Facet Satisfaction
  • Overall satisfaction
      • Results either from mathematically combining scores based on satisfaction or a single overall evaluative rating of the job
  • Facet satisfaction
      • Information related to specific elements of job satisfaction
satisfaction questionnaires
Satisfaction Questionnaires
  • Job Descriptive Index (JDI)
      • Assesses satisfaction with work itself, supervision, people, pay, & promotion
      • Heavily researched but tends to be lengthy
  • Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ)
      • Calculates “extrinsic” & “intrinsic” satisfaction scores
concept of commitment
Concept of Commitment

Psychological & emotional attachment an individual feels to a relationship, organization, goal, or occupation


organizational commitment
Organizational Commitment

Organizational commitment has 3 elements:

(1) acceptance and belief in an organization’s values

(2) a willingness to exert effort on behalf of the

organization to help meet the goals of that organization

(3) a strong desire to remain in the organization

forms of organizational commitment
Forms of Organizational Commitment
  • Affective commitment
    • Emotional attachment to an organization
  • Continuance commitment
    • Perceived cost of leaving the organization
  • Normative commitment
    • Obligation to remain in the organization
individual difference variables commitment
Individual Difference Variables & Commitment
  • Absenteeism & turnover can only be understood when considering multiple forms of commitment & multiple foundations for those commitments
  • Job embeddedness
  • Hobo syndrome
organizational identification
Organizational Identification
  • Organizational identification (OID)
    • process whereby individuals derive a feeling of pride and esteem from their association with an organization.
    • Individuals may also take pains to distance themselves from the organization for which they work—this would be called organizational disidentification.
figure 9 4 graphic scale of identification
Figure 9.4:Graphic Scale of Identification

The chart is intended to

assess your relationship

with the organization

(or company, branch,

department, team) you

belong to. Above you will

find 7 rectangles. In

each rectangle there are two

circles. One represents you

and the other one the unit

you belong to. In each

rectangle the circles

overlap differently. In the

first rectangle (number 1),

they are totally separate

and represent a situation

in which you do not identify

at all with your unit. In the

last rectangle (number 7),

the circles are totally

overlapping and represent a

situation in which you totally

identify with the unit. Choose

out of the seven rectangles

the one that most highly

represents the extent to

which you identify with

your unit.

SOURCE: Shamir & Kark (2004).

employee engagement
  • Positive work-related state of mind that includes high levels of energy, enthusiasm, and identification with one’s work
  • Overlaps positively with job sat., org. commitment, and job involvement
  • But is distinct from these constructs and has important organizational implications (i.e., increased engagement on the part of workers is related to increased task and contextual performance)
module 9 2 moods emotions attitudes behavior
Module 9.2: Moods, Emotions, Attitudes, & Behavior
  • Alternative forms of work satisfaction
    • Progressive work satisfaction
    • Stabilized work satisfaction
    • Resigned work satisfaction
    • Pseudo-work satisfaction
    • Constructive work dissatisfaction
    • Fixated work dissatisfaction
alternative forms of satisfaction cont d
Alternative Forms of Satisfaction (cont'd)
  • Resigned work satisfaction & constructive work dissatisfaction are most salient for organizations
  • Those 2 dimensions are most appropriate to concentrate on in any attempts at organizational change
satisfaction vs mood vs emotion
Satisfaction vs. Mood vs. Emotion
  • Mood
    • Generalized feeling not identified with a particular stimulus & not sufficiently intense to interrupt ongoing thought processes
  • Emotion
    • Normally associated with specific events or occurrences that are intense enough to disrupt thought processes
emotion cont d
Emotion (cont'd)
  • Process emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one is currently doing
  • Prospective emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one anticipates doing
  • Retrospective emotions
    • Result from consideration of tasks one has already completed
dispositions affectivity
Dispositions & Affectivity
  • Negative affectivity (NA)
    • Often referred to as neuroticism
    • Individuals prone to experience diverse array of negative mood states
  • Positive affectivity (PA)
    • Often referred to as extraversion
    • Individuals prone to describe themselves as cheerful, enthusiastic, confident, active, & energetic
  • Personality characteristics likely to influence moods, but not necessarily discrete emotions
genetics job satisfaction
Genetics & Job Satisfaction
  • In a 1986 study, disposition in adolescence predicted job satisfaction as long as 50 years later
  • Additional research has been conducted in this controversial area, but considerably more research is necessary on the links between genetics and job satisfaction

M. Freeman/PhotoLink/Getty Images

core evaluations
Core Evaluations
  • Assessments individuals make of their circumstances
  • Include self-esteem, self-efficacy, & LOC
  • Have effects on both job & life satisfaction
withdrawal behaviors
Withdrawal Behaviors
  • Work withdrawal
    • Attempt to withdraw from work but maintain ties to organization & work role (includes lateness & absenteeism)
  • Job withdrawal
    • Willingness to sever ties to organization & work role (includes intentions to quit or retire)
  • Progression hypothesis
module 9 3 related topics
Module 9.3: Related Topics
  • Job loss
    • Reduces income & daily variety
    • Suspension of typical goal setting guiding day-to-day activity
    • Fewer decisions to make
    • New skills not developed & old skills atrophy
    • Social relationships can change radically
  • Accomplishing work tasks from distant location using electronic communications
  • # telecommuters will continue to rise
  • For many telecommuters, strategic planning skills & self-reported productivity increase
  • Higher satisfaction also reported
telecommuting cont d
Telecommuting (cont’d)
  • Possible negative effects
    • Worker alienation
    • Loss of important sense of identity
    • Promotion less likely
    • Rapid disillusionment with lack of promotional opportunities
psychological contract
Psychological Contract

Beliefs that people hold regarding the terms of an exchange agreement between them and an organization.

When psychological contracts are broken, lower work attitudes and job performance are likely.

Psychological contracts are receiving a lot of attention in the 21st Century workplace where long-term employment in 1 organization is increasingly rare.


work family balance
Work-Family Balance
  • Research investigating whether satisfaction one experiences at work is in part affected by satisfaction one experiences in non-work & vice versa
  • Negative influences on work-family balance
    • Electronically enhanced communications
    • Prevalence of multiple roles

PhotoDisc/Getty Images

work related attitudes emotions from cross cultural perspective
Work-Related Attitudes & Emotions From Cross-Cultural Perspective
  • Individualism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in some cultures, while collectivism & job satisfaction “+” correlated in other cultures
  • Degree of “fit” related to emotional reactions to work & subsequent work behaviors
    • Important for multinational organizations to consider