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Multicellular Algae

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  1. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 1 • Live in/near water sources http://www.eplantscience.com/botanical_biotechnology_biology_chemistry/images/Plant%20organisms/Green_algae/Chlorophyta_large.jpg, http://www.californiasciencecenter.org/Exhibits/WorldOfEcology/ForestZone/KelpForest/images/Island-kelp-forest.jpg, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/29/Red_algae.jpg,

  2. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 2 • Lack vascular tissue http://universe-review.ca/I10-24-vascular.jpg, http://en.es-static.us/upl/2012/03/seaweed.jpeg

  3. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 3 • Some unicellular, some colonial, most multicellular http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgdec03/volv3sm.jpg, http://www.marlin.ac.uk/imgs/o_ulvlac.jpg

  4. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 4 • Reproductive cycles involve alternating sexual and asexual stages http://www.biologyjunction.com/images/chlamydomonasrepro.jpg

  5. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 5 • Well-adapted to life in water • Thin leaf-like structures (~2 cells thick) • Movement of materials into the organism is through diffusion • No stems • Ease of sexual reproduction http://www.mrcorfe.com/KS4/Edexcel/Biology/B2-1-LivingCells/images/DiffusionCell.jpg

  6. Multicellular Algae Characteristic 6 • Adapted to life in the intertidal zone • Cell wall of cellulose and gel-like sugar (slimy and rubbery) • Some have CaCO3 http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/images/wsci_01_img0122.jpg

  7. Algal groups in phycology • According to: • Chlorophyll and accessory pigments • Form in which food is stored

  8. Division Rhodophyta (Red algae) Chondruscrispus, Irish moss • Habitat • Some freshwater, most marine • Polar regions, tropics • Up to ~260 m depth • Pigments • Chl a (all) • phycoerythrin absorbs blue light • appears green, pink, red, purple, black • Food reserve: Floridean starch • Mostly multicellular; no flagella and centrioles Lithothamnionglaciale http://www.biopix.nl/Temp/JCS%20Chondrus%20crispus%2015579.jpg, http://www.uwphoto.no/500/esv151cd221.jpg, http://media.treehugger.com/assets/images/2011/10/porphyra.jpg Porphyra  nori

  9. Division Phaeophyta (Brown algae) • Habitat • Mostly marine • Cool, shallow coastal waters of temperate/arctic areas • Pigments • Chl a and c • fucoxanthin • Dusky olive/yellow-brown • Food reserve: laminarin • All multicellular; largest and most complex algae Macrocystis pyrifera, giant kelp http://s1.hubimg.com/u/4873716_f260.jpg, http://www.ohio.edu/plantbio/vislab/algaeimage/jpegs/Sarg.JPG, http://www.deepseaimages.com/dsilibrary/data/683/22003_0208_125426aa_1_1.jpg Padina

  10. Phaeophyta structures Thallus (pl. thalli) “sprout”- plantlike seaweed body • holdfast – attachment • stipe – stemlike support • blade – surface for photosynthesis • bladder – flotation, keeps blades near surface http://ez002.k12.sd.us/kelpai.jpg

  11. SEXUAL Reproduction in Fucus Only multicellular part of the life cycle http://plantphys.info/organismal/lechtml/images/fucuslc.gif

  12. DIvisionChlorophyta (green algae) • Habitat: Freshwater/marine/moist areas • Pigments: Chl a and b, carotenoids • Food reserve: starch • Cell wall of cellulose • Unicellular/colonial/multicellular • Ancestors of modern land plants Volvox http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~bioslabs/studies/invertebrates/invertimages/chlamy.gif, http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/imgdec03/volvoxbirth2.jpg, http://www.aphotomarine.com/images/seaweed/green_seaweed_sea_lettuce_ulva_linza_17-03-09.jpg Ulva

  13. Unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas • Ponds, ditches • 2 flagella • Cup-shaped chloroplast • Pyrenoid at base synthesizes and stores starch • 2 small contractile vacuoles • Eyespot • Cell wall not made of cellulose http://universe-review.ca/I10-68-greenalgae1.jpg, http://silicasecchidisk.conncoll.edu/Pics/Other%20Algae/Green_jpegs/Chlamydomonas_Key100.jpg

  14. colonial green algae Gonium • 4-42 identical cells living together but functioning independently Volvox • 500-50,000 cells arranged in hollow spheres • Most cells identical; few produce gametes Oedogonium • Threadlike colonies • Holdfast cell attached to lake/pond bottom • Asexual reproduction: broken filaments divide and grow • Sexual reproduction: formation of gametes http://protist.i.hosei.ac.jp/pdb/images/Chlorophyta/Gonium/sp_2a.jpg, http://anugrahjuni.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/oedogonium2.gif

  15. multicellular green algae Ulva • Intertidal zone of marine habitats • Truly multicellular • 2-cells thick but tough http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_bQO5DdNy04g/S_3l_CGS8rI/AAAAAAAADgs/sCQ9cyg6lu0/s1600/i1023ulva.jpg

  16. Reproduction in chlorophyta Haploid, N Alternation of generations • Diploid  haploid stages • Asexual  sexual modes of reproduction • Asexual  spore* formation • Sexual  gamete* formation * Both are haploid reproductive cells Diploid, 2N http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Haploid_vs_diploid.svg

  17. Reproduction in chlamydomonas (unfavorable conditions) 2N  N N  N Dominant stage Fertilization/Syngamy Isogamy http://www.biologyjunction.com/images/chlamydomonasrepro.jpg

  18. Reproduction in ulva Multicellular diploid stage with sporangia that produce spores N  N 2N  N Multicellular haploid stages with gametangia that produce gametes

  19. “grasses of the sea” home to marine organisms source of oxygen source of pharmaceuticals food products algin from brown algae carageenan and agar from red algae non-food products Undaria Porphyra Lithothamnium Chlorella Dunaliella Wakame Nori Ecology of Algae Laminaria Kombu