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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Flow through Culverts' - tegan

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Flow through Culverts

- A short passage way for flow under a highway, railroad or other embankment is referred to as a culvert.
- Culvert shape may be circular, rectangular, arch or elliptical.
- Several flow conditions are possible and these conditions depend upon several parameters.
- Flow control (upstream or downstream)
- Depending upon the head and the tailwater levels, the control may shift from the inlet to the outlet and vice versa as these water levels change.

Flow Capacity

- A curve relating the headwater level to the rate of discharge through the culvert is referred to as the rating curve or the performance curve.
- For flow capacity determination, pick rating curve that gives lower discharge among inlet and outlet rating curves

Inlet Control

- A culvert does not flow full even if the entrance is submerged if the Head at inlet is less than , where is the height of the culvert at the entrance and = the upstream water level – the culvert invert level

(Chaudhry, 2008)

Rate of Discharge [Henderson, 1966]

- Unsubmerged entrance
= Culvert width, coefficient accounts for contraction on the sides. For square edge sides, ; and for slightly rounded sides .

- Submerged entrance
accounts for contraction at the sides and the top. For square edge entrance, ; and for rounded edges .

Outlet Control

- In the outlet control, the culvert either flows full or partially full.
is total losses

is elevation of the water level

(Chaudhry, 2008)

Flow Measurement

- Employing the critical flow characteristics, only flow depth is sufficient to estimate rate of discharge.
- Flumes: discharge measurement is based on the assumption that critical flow is produced by constricting the width, raising the bottom, or combination of the two. Then the measurement of a single flow depth is sufficient to determine the discharge.
- Parshall flume is a commonly used flume (standing wave flumes)

(Chaudhry, 2008)

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