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What Healthy Means to me …bumper sticker Stress Relief … recipe Family Health History… individual Mental Illness … poster pt/ md /family CAM … thumbs up/down project Wellness action plan…individual. Dynamics of Care in Society
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What Healthy Means to me …bumper sticker Stress Relief … recipe Family Health History… individual Mental Illness … poster pt/md/family CAM … thumbs up/down project Wellness action plan…individual
Dynamics of Care in Society Concepts of Health, Illness & Wellnesslet’s start (dimensions of…) & end with wellness (a plan for…)
Obj. 1Differentiate between health, wellness, illness & disease, health promotion/disease prevention and treatment. • Obj. 2identify the components that describe health • Obj. 3develop a personal & professional definition of health, wellness, illness & disease • Obj. 4 discuss the role of Healthy People in shaping health care • Obj. 5analyze the impact of Healthy People initiatives on self, family, community • Obj. 6 analyze how various genetic, environmental & behavioral factors impact upon and individual’s concept of health, illness & disease
5 Dimensions of Health: includes the physical, emotional, social, mental (intellectual) & spiritual wellnesses, separately and intertwined. Environment plays a role.
Being Healthy Means… • Good health means different things to different people. It may mean: feeling good when you get up in the morning… completing a difficult task… being pain free… being physically fit… liking the way you look… being satisfied with the body you have… looking forward to tomorrow… • A concept of health means most to the person who devises it.
Definitions • Health …a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity according to WHO (world health org) • Wellness … implies feeling good, regardless of infirmity or disease. • Preventative Care … emphasizes keeping patients well & not waiting until they are ill to provide treatment. Health education is needed to maintain good health
Health vs. Wellness • The concept of wellness is broader and includes more facets of human life than the traditional definition of health.Wellness is more subjective and is more difficult to measure. Ex: a person suffering from heart disease may high levels of satisfaction in all dimensions of wellness…likewise a person free from disease may have low satisfaction levels…
Being Healthy is not an “all or nothing “ principle ex: a person can have normal blood sugar and blood pressure, yet suffer from depression..
Assignment: “Being Healthy…means to me…”design a bumper sticker, (one side of your folder) which includes a slogan /statement & visual Diseases of the soul are more dangerous and more numerous than those of the body. ~Cicero Eat right, exercise regularly, die anyway. ~Author Unknown
Holistic Care • Care that provides for the well-being of the whole person • Meets not only physical needs, but includes social, emotional, and mental needs • Health care workers must understand cultural and ethnic beliefs in order to provide care the meet each of these needs
Holistic Care 1. Physical fitness • physicals, rest, good nutrition, weight control, exercise, immunizations, well-baby care • avoid drugs, alcohol, tobacco, excessive or unhealthy food intake
Holistic Care 2. Mental fitness • to interact effectively & feel balanced • characteristics of being mentally healthy include: self directed, feel a sense of belonging, trust their own senses & feelings, accept themselves, have positive self esteem, practice stress management
Holistic Care • 3. Social well being • feeling comfortable with others • allow acceptance of behavior, attitudes & beliefs • includes enjoying companionship, sharing ideas or thoughts, showing enthusiasm • having a sense of belonging Chicken soup may provide relief to cold symptoms, but the friend who brings you the soup appears to be important in maintaining health. - Stephanie Chisolm PhD.
DISEASE any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any body part, organ, or system that is manifested by a characteristic set of symptoms and signs.
DISABILITY impairment of an individual as it affects his or her role in life.(such as an inability to work because of a health condition.)
YOUR RIGHTS UNDER THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILTIES ACT The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 provides comprehensive civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities in the areas of employment, state and local government services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications. (see handout)
Objective in discussing aging: demonstrate "respect for an individual's life experience and gain insight into the positive aspects of the aging process and an awareness of the negative factors." • How might negative attitudes about aging influence public policy, health careers and social programs for older people?
DO NOW… What things can cause stress or anxiety to ahospitalized patient: Compare Good Stress aka “eustress” to Bad stress aka “distress” and how they impact daily life:
2. Stress Stress is a combination of physiological and emotional responses to an event. Some of the physiological responses may include: Increased heart rate and blood pressure Sweating Dry mouth Tight muscles Headaches Some of the cognitive or emotional responses include: Negative Self-talk Restlessness Inability to concentrate Short temper • (see handout)
Stress Producers • Inability to say no • Disorderly lifestyle • Unrealistic expectations • Under excessive demands • Self doubt • Specific concerns (money, lack of support…) • Physical problems • Emotional factors • Chemical factors • Positive Strategies to reduce stress • Keep work & life simple • Identify & reduce stress producers • Shift your thinking, cognitive therapy • Enlist social support • Relaxation techniques • Lifestyle changesand your recipes…….
3. Environment • Climate /Weatherheat, humidity, cold, ice, flooding, hurricanes… • Exposure to Carcinogens & other poisonsradiation, pesticides, asbestos… • Air & Water Qualitypollution, second hand smoke, parasites, infectious agents… • Physical home, workplace… • hazards, safety, relationships, pets…
nutrition • weight • social activity • physical activity • tobacco, drug & alcohol use • occupation • sexual behavior • where you live • adequate sleep • etc…Can increase or decrease your disease risk. • 4. Lifestyle
Launched in September 2011 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Million Hearts™ is a national initiative that aims to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes in the U.S. by 2017. http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/be_one_mh.html To Be Heart Healthy Remember Your ABCS A — Appropriate Aspirin Therapy B — Blood Pressure Control C — Cholesterol Management S — Smoking Cessation
5. Community Access : to health care, health prevention, wellness activities, safety, and to the benefits of research, technology & education
6. Family Health History Many diseases are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The importance of any particular factor varies from person to person.
Family Health History • Requires periodic re-evaluation • Promotes sense of responsibility & partnership in your health care • Identifies increased susceptibility to certain disorders • Identifies “heritable” risks for genetic disorders
RED FLAGS in your family history • Having a family member who had a certain disease at an earlier age than usual, can increase other family members' risk. (10 to 20 years before most people get it) ex: hearing loss, heart disease, dementia, colon cancer • Risk also goes up if a relative has a disease that usually does not affect a certain gender.ex: breast cancer in a man
With some diseases that run in the family, genes may be part of the cause,but there is no clear pattern of inheritance. (For example, the more close relatives with breast cancer a woman has, the greater her risk of breast cancer. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles a man's risk of prostate cancer) • Certain combinations of diseases within a family increase the chance of developing those diseases (such as breast and ovarian cancer, or heart disease and diabetes)
Common health problems that can run in a family include: • Alzheimer's disease/dementia • arthritis • asthma • blood clots • cancer • depression • diabetes • heart disease • high cholesterol • high blood pressure • pregnancy losses and birth defects • stroke
DISEASE TYPES • Medical illnesses include:cancer, body system illnesses (ex: neurological, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, uro-genital, respiratory, metabolic, gastrointestinal diseases, autoimmune diseases (in which the body’s immune system attacks itself) and infectious (aka communicable aka contagious - transferred from one living thing to another) Ex: Breast cancer, Parkinson’s Disease, Congestive Heart failure, Cystitis, Emphysema, Diabetes, GERD, Lupus, Influenza…
Injury: aka harm or hurtmay be applied in medicine to damage inflicted upon oneself , or by an external agent. It may be accidental or deliberate. Includes wounds or trauma. Ex: from falls, accidents, crimes…
Diseases Present at Birth • Genetic Disorder-the disease comes from a mutation, or harmful change, in a gene inherited from one or both parents. Ex: Cystic fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia • Birth Defect- disorders of the developing and newborn baby, cause may be exposure of the mother to rubella or alcohol during pregnancy but the cause is often unknown. Ex: cleft palate, spinal bifida • In most cases there are no cures
Mental illnesses (disease or disorder): Any of various psychiatric conditions, usually characterized by impairment of an individual's normal cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning, and caused by physiological or psychosocial factors.
Causes of Mental Illness… Genetics: Many mental conditions are linked to problems in multiple genes , therefore one may inherit a susceptibility to a mental disorder but does not always develop the condition. The interaction of other factors with these genes can be an influence or trigger. Biology: Abnormal balance of neurotransmitters in the brain and defects or injury to certain areas of the brain have been linked to some mental conditions.
3. Psychological Trauma: some mental illnesses may be triggered by traumas suffered as a child such as physical, sexual or severe emotional abuse; a significant early loss or neglect. • 4. Environmental Stressors: such as death, divorce, substance abuse, major life changes..can also increase the risk for developing a mental illness.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States and contains a listing of diagnostic criteria for every psychiatric disorder recognized by the U.S. healthcare system. Mental Health\DSM V table of contents.pdf Video Clips Positive Emotions and Resilience Videos about Mental Health, Illness and Wellness by 5Min
CONDITIONS • Acute diseases- are severe and sudden in onset, ex: a broken bone or an asthma attack. • A chronic disease or condition - is a long-developing syndrome, ex: osteoporosis or asthma. • Degenerative disease or condition - cause further breakdown, or degeneration in body cells and tissues as they progressex: osteoarthritis, muscle atrophy
Note that osteoporosis, a chronic condition, may cause a broken bone, an acute condition. • An acute asthma attack occurs in the midst of the chronic disease of asthma. Acute conditions, such as a first asthma attack, may lead to a chronic syndrome if untreated.
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Pretest: Do you know the difference between acupressure and acupuncture? Take the alternative medicine quiz! : Discovery Channel
Conventional (allopathic or Western) medicine is practiced by holders of M.D. and D.O. degrees and by allied health professionals, such as physical therapists, psychologists, and registered nurses. Alternative (sometimes Eastern) medicine refers to use of healing arts not taught in traditional Western medical schools, in place of conventional medicine. Complementary (integrative) medicine refers to use of alternative medicine together with conventional medicine
“Western” Medicine or Biomedical Health Care • Based on the cause of disease & eliminating, treating, or preventing those causes • Providers receive training and are licensed to practice as professionals • Beliefs of this system include: • Encouraging patients to learn about their illness • Teaching self-care • Using medications and technology to treat illness • Teaching preventive care
Most people use CAM therapies in addition to conventional medical treatment Considerations:Safety, Effectiveness, Timing, Cost
Traditional Indigenous Systems Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
Alternative Health Care Methods • Nutritional/biological methods – organic, herbs, vitamins, specialdiets, shark cartilage… • Mind and body control methods – meditation, hypnotherapy, biofeedback, dance therapy, prayer… • Energy therapy –magnets, cupping, therapeutic touch, Reiki… • Manipulative body based methods - chiropractic, yoga, tai chi, osteopathic, massage, reflexology… • Spiritual methods – faith healing • Homeopathy, an unconventional Western medical system –remedies are derived from substances that come from plants, minerals, or animals
Herbal supplements: a word about safety • Although herbs have been used for thousands of years as natural medicines, natural does not always mean safe. • Herbs can act in your body in ways similar to prescription drugs, and herbs may have side effects. • Always ask a patient or share with your health care professional any herbal supplements used. • They may also affect your response to prescription drugs or OTC medications possibly decreasing or increasing their effects. • They are not regulated by the FDA so labelling & content purity, safety & efficacy are not monitored as are “Drugs”
Did you know that some of our medicines are derived from plants and trees? Drug Name Plant/Tree Digitalis (heart drug) Foxglove plant Paclitaxel (cancer drug) Pacific yew tree Aspirin Willow tree Quinine (malaria drug) Cinchona tree Morphine Opium poppy Galantamine (Alzheimer’s drug) Daffodil bulbs Vincristine (cancer drug) Rosy periwinkle Reserpine (blood pressure drug) Indian snake root plant