The senses
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The Senses. Somatic senses throughout body, including internal organs Touch, vibrations Temperature Pressure Pain Body position, movements Special senses - located in certain areas only Smell Taste Sight Hearing Balance. Sensory Receptors: Receive and Convert Stimuli.

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The senses
The Senses

  • Somatic senses throughout body, including internal organs

    • Touch, vibrations

    • Temperature

    • Pressure

    • Pain

    • Body position, movements

  • Special senses - located in certain areas only

    • Smell

    • Taste

    • Sight

    • Hearing

    • Balance

Sensory receptors receive and convert stimuli
Sensory Receptors: Receive and Convert Stimuli

  • Mechanoreceptors: mechanical energy

  • Thermoreceptors: hot or cold

  • Pain Receptors: tissue injury, excessive pressure

  • Chemoreceptors: chemicals; taste and smell

  • Photoreceptors: light

Receptor adaptation to continuing stimuli
Receptor Adaptation to Continuing Stimuli

  • Purpose: CNS concentrates on important stimuli and ignores others

  • Receptors that adapt: light touch, pressure, smell

  • Receptors that do not adapt: pain, joint, and muscle monitoring receptors

Cns interpretation
CNS Interpretation

  • Location: nerves hard wired to specific portions of brain, specific nerve stimulus results in assigning specific location

    • Referred pain

  • Strength of feeling: frequency of nerve stimulus

The ear
The Ear

  • Houses two senses in different organs

    • Hearing

    • Balance

  • Receptors are mechanoreceptors

Anatomy of the ear
Anatomy of the Ear

  • The ear is divided into three areas

    • Outer ear

      • Pinna, auditory canal

Figure 8.12

The middle ear
The Middle Ear

  • Air-filled cavity within the temporal bone

  • tympanic membrane

  • Three bones span the cavity

    • Malleus (hammer)

    • Incus (anvil)

    • Stapes (stirrup)

      auditory tube

Inner ear or bony labyrinth
Inner Ear or Bony Labyrinth

  • converts sound vibrations to nerve impulses

  • balance

  • Filled with perilymph

  • Chambers:

    • Cochlea

    • Vestibule

    • Semicircular canals

Figure 8.12

Mechanisms of hearing
Mechanisms of Hearing

Cochlea has 2 compartments:

1. Vestibular and tympanic canals (joined at far end)

2. Cochlear duct

Figure 8.16a–b

Organs of hearing
Organs of Hearing

Cochlea in transverse section Organ of Corti

Figure 8.15

Mechanisms of hearing1
Mechanisms of Hearing

1. Sound waves

2. Tectorial membrane

3. Hair cells bend

4. Triggers action potential

5. Adaptation to


Figure 8.16a–b

Organs of equilibrium
Organs of Equilibrium

  • Receptor cells are in two structures

    • Vestibule - static equilibrium

    • Semicircular canals - dynamic equilibrium

Figure 8.14a–b

Sensing rotational movement
Sensing rotational movement

Ampulla with mechanoreceptors in cupula

Tuft of hair cells

  • Cupula (gelatinous cap) covers the hair cells

Figure 8.14c

Sensing head position and acceleration
Sensing head position and acceleration:

vestibule with otoliths -

reports on the position of the head

Figure 8.13a–b

Balance inner ear
Balance: Inner Ear

  • Specialized structures:

    • Vestibular apparatus: three semicircular canals and vestibule

      • Sensing rotational movement: ampulla with mechanoreceptors in cupula

      • Sensing head rotation and acceleration: in vestibule with otoliths

Chemical senses taste and smell
Chemical Senses – Taste and Smell

  • Both senses use chemoreceptors

    • Stimulated by chemicals in solution

    • Taste has four types of receptors

    • Smell can differentiate a large range of chemicals - 1000+

  • Both senses complement each other and respond to many of the same stimuli

Olfaction the sense of smell
Olfaction – The Sense of Smell

  • Olfactory receptor cells: chemoreceptors that bind with odorants

  • Correlation between taste and smell: chewed food releases chemicals that come in contact with olfactory receptors