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Oceanography and the Nature of Science

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  1. Oceanography and the Nature of Science

  2. A. What is Science? • Science literally means “having knowledge” • Science is the search for answers to questions in a methodical way. • And there is a specific method for going about obtaining knowledge scientifically.

  3. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. PURPOSE

  4. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. • Research: Start by gathering data. PURPOSE RESEARCH

  5. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. • Research: Start by gathering data. • Hypothesis: a prediction based on data of what you think might happen. PURPOSE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

  6. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. • Research: Start by gathering data. • Hypothesis: a prediction based on data of what you think might happen. • Experiment: set up a way to test your prediction. PURPOSE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT

  7. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. • Research: Start by gathering data. • Hypothesis: a prediction based on data of what you think might happen. • Experiment: set up a way to test your prediction. • Analysis- record and interpret the results of your test. PURPOSE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT ANALYSIS

  8. B. The Scientific Method • Purpose: Why are we doing this? - state the problem. • Research: Start by gathering data. • Hypothesis: a prediction based on data of what you think might happen. • Experiment: set up a way to test your prediction. • Analysis- record and interpret the results of your test. • Conclusion- compare your hypothesis to the results of your tests. PURPOSE RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS EXPERIMENT CONCLUSION ANALYSIS

  9. C. Theories and Laws • Just because scientific theories are developed because of observations doesn’t mean they are “True” • Theories don’t become laws.

  10. C. Theories and Laws • Just because scientific theories are developed because of observations doesn’t mean they are “True” • Theories don’t become laws. • A Theory is an explanation based on multiple observations. What theories do you have about this party?

  11. C. Theories and Laws • Just because scientific theories are developed because of observations doesn’t mean they are “True” • Theories don’t become laws. • A Theory is an explanation based on multiple observations. • Law- a rule that describes the behavior of something in nature. A Law describes what will happen in a situation, but not why it happens. What will happen to this cliff jumper? What do we know? What can we theorize?

  12. C. Theories and Laws Often, scientists develop theories about why something happens based on tests and observations. (ex. Theory of Relativity proposed by Albert Einstein) Laws are developed after tests and observations too, but “why” is not always known. What is known is that the tests always have the same conclusion. (ex. Law of Gravity)

  13. D. Science Without Bias: Is it Possible? • For science to be done accurately it must be done without Bias. • Bias is simply your personal opinion. • Preconceived notions and personal beliefs can affect your observations. • For example if you believe in aliens, your more likely to report seeing one, and truly believe you have seen one, whether you truly have or not. • Do you think it is possible for a scientist’s who has spent 20 years of his life doing an in-depth study, trying to gather evidence in support of his theory, to be unbiased?

  14. E. Observation & Inference modified by Liz LaRosa www.middleschoolscience.com 2009, from original posted at:www.science-class.net/PowerPoints/Observation_Inference_8th.ppt

  15. Observations • Any information collected with the senses. • Quantitative – measureable or countable • 3 meters long • 4 marbles • 50 kilograms • 35 degrees Celsius • Qualitative – describable, not measureable • red flowers • smells like fresh baked cookies • Tastes bitter • The skill of describing scientific events

  16. Inference • Conclusions or deductions based on observations. • The process of drawing a conclusion from given evidence. Practice: • Observations: • I hear people screaming • I smell cotton candy, popcorn, and hamburgers • I see a lot of people • Inference = ?

  17. Look at these two sets of animal tracks. List 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

  18. Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

  19. Now what do you think? Make 3 OBSERVATIONS Make an INFERENCE

  20. Source of graphic:http://bob.nap.edu/html/evolution98/evol6-e.html

  21. Fossil Activity • Find a partner • Write your name on the paper provided • I will give you a fossil • You are to draw your fossil as you see it (top, side, and bottom) and make 3 observations. • In another area of the paper, draw the environment and creature/plant that your fossil belongs to. • Then you will present it to the class briefly.

  22. What do you see?

  23. F. Independent and Dependent Variables • The scientific method requires variables for testing. • “Is plant growth affected by the amount of sunlight?” - tested by varying the amount of sunlight several plants receive and comparing the growth of the plants. • Independent variable is what you control in the experiment (the amount of sunlight). • Dependent variable is what you measure in the experiment (the plant growth).

  24. G. Graphing Data • If you were to graph the relationship between plant growth and hours of sunlight received, which variable would go on your “X” axis? • Bottom line= be independent

  25. Let's try the Scientific Method! • What is happening in these pictures? • Do you know why?

  26. Let's try the Scientific Method! • Purpose: Why does Diet Coke react explosively with mentos candy? • Research: Everyone has seen this done on the internet, so it does work. What is it between Diet Coke and Mentos that makes it explosive?

  27. Let's try the Scientific Method! • Diet Coke is fizzy, caused by the dissolved Carbon Dioxide in the soda. • The candy releases this carbon dioxide rapidly, causing the explosion. • So we will try this with soda water, which is like Diet Coke, without all the additives (just dissolved carbon dioxide in water) • Write down a hypothesis (prediction) about what you think will happen.

  28. So our experiment is to add mentos to soda water to get a reaction between the candy and the carbon dioxide. • Record your observations. What did you see? This is your analysis. • Did it match your hypothesis? This is your conclusion.

  29. Now we need to test the mentos to see if it is special. • We will drop a fruit flavored mentos into the soda water and see if we have the same reaction. • What do you think will happen? • Did your hypothesis match the result?

  30. Make your own tests! In groups of 3 or 4, you will be given a problem. Read your card and create an experiment that will solve your problem. Work quickly! When the time is up, turn in all your work. Don't forget to put everyone's names on it!

  31. Let's see if you had the same ideas... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGMxEr2AxHM

  32. What is Oceanography? • Oceanography is the study of the ocean using scientific methods of testing and data recording.

  33. G. Earth and its Oceans • Earth's surface is mostly water: 71% • How did the oceans form?

  34. G. Earth and its Oceans • Earth's surface is mostly water: 71% • How did the oceans form? One theory states: As Earth warmed and partially melted, water locked in the minerals as hydrogen and oxygen were released and carried to the surface by volcanic venting activity (outgassing). Once the hydrogen and oxygen was released into the atmosphere, it combined to become water vapor. As more water was produced, clouds formed and it rained and rainedand rained!

  35. G. Earth and its Oceans • The presence of water on Earth is due to the “Goldilocks Effect” - Earth is a perfect distance from the sun for water to be liquid on the planet. • Too close, and water would be permanently water vapor. • Too far, and water would be permanently ice. • Liquid water is essential to support life on Earth!

  36. I. One World Ocean, 5 Names • All the oceans are interconnected, but we use 5 names to identify the 5 main ocean basins. • They are Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, and Southern (formerly the Antarctic).

  37. J. The Disciplines of Oceanography • Oceanography is composed of 4 basic disciplines: • Geological Oceanography– Structure and formation of the sea floor • Chemical Oceanography - Chemical composition and properties of seawater • Physical Oceanography - Waves, tides, currents (all movement) • Biological Oceanography - Oceanic life forms

  38. J. The Disciplines of Oceanography • Using the descriptions, state which area of oceanography the following situations would fit into: (INCLUDE SCENARIO IN YOUR NOTES AND ANSWER) • 1. Studying the tides during a moon cycle • 2. Testing how much salt is in the waters of the Southern Ocean • 3. Studying the mating habits of false killer whales • 4. Using sonar to map the sea floor • 5. Sampling ocean water and iceburg melt water and comparing their chemical compositions • 6. Tracking the ocean currents as they move from the equator to the pole in the Atlantic ocean • 7. Sending a ROV to the floor of the Pacific to collect data on depths and underwater trenches • 8. Taking a count of the number of species of Clownfish on the Great Barrier Reef