Globalization and governance
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Globalization and governance. What can Theories of Political Economy tell us? in an age that combined globalization and uncertainty about US global leadership, how do you organize the international political economy?. What is Globalization?.

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Globalization and governance l.jpg

Globalization and governance

What can Theories of Political Economy tell us?

in an age that combined globalization and uncertainty about US global leadership, how do you organize the international political economy?

What is globalization l.jpg
What is Globalization?

  • Growth of networks of interdependence that transcend national and regional boundaries

  • Economic networks

    • Trade

    • Capital flows

    • Labor migration

  • Communication and transportation networks

    • Networks linking soldiers, criminals, terrorists

    • Advocacy networks

    • Religious organizations

The dark side of globalization l.jpg
The “dark side” of globalization

  • More access to goods and services…….but greater illegal trade in arms, people, drugs, money.

  • More goods transported across the globe…..but they can bring in toxic toys, invasive species, contaminated food

  • Ease of internet access expands free speech but can put porn in children's hands, facilitate reckless investments, intellectual theft

  • Movement of people expands freedom but can spread deadly diseases.

The dilemma l.jpg
The Dilemma

  • Economics is global but……

  • But Isn’t this the neo-liberal vision?

  • Politics is local

  • Local (national) politics can’t handle global issues…..

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Local government won’t work under globalization…….

  • Because Globalization undermines state sovereignty

  • National governments can’t protect their citizens from global “bads”…..

And there could be a backlash l.jpg
And there could be a backlash…..

  • Illiberal democracy because……

    • Globalization Econ. Insecruity retreat from national identity retreat into ethnic and sectarian identities feeling of “belonging” and security  exclude others from democracy

  • “Jihad” because…..

    • Excluvity can lead to separation and fragmentation of political communities  who might want the same land  conflict

So what to do about the dark side l.jpg
So….What to do about the dark side?

  • Delegate authority upwards

  • Delegate authority downwards

  • Hybrid of public-private authority

What guidance can theories of political economy give for the governance of globalization l.jpg
What guidance can theories of political economy give for the governance of globalization?

  • Economic Nationalism (Waltz)

  • Distributive justice

  • Liberal Theory

    • governance by private actors

    • Multilateral institutions

  • Global communitarianism

Global public governance l.jpg
Global Public Governance governance of globalization?

  • International Organizations?

  • What are the benefits?

Problem 2 they are undemocratic l.jpg
Problem 2:They are undemocratic governance of globalization?

  • No transparency

  • No accountability

  • Technocrats rule!

  • No role for elected representatives PERIOD!!

  • Voting by APPOINTED rep.

    • No role for congress!

    • No wonder congress won’t ratify treaties!

  • Undermine economic and social rights

  • What about “global federalism?” (Rodrick)

Problem 3 and ineffective l.jpg
Problem 3: And ineffective governance of globalization?

  • Collective action problems

  • Economic nationalism often rears its head

  • Global institutions can be ignored

  • They have a long way to go……

  • What about global leadership?

  • Example of governance in the current financial crisis……

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Who is the Lender of last resort? governance of globalization?

  • The IMF?

  • Resources increased by $500 billion $40 billion from China (loan) (not confirmed)

    • $100 billion from Japan and EU (promised before G20)

    • Still need $260 billion…..

      • $10 billion promise from Canada

      • $4.5 billion promise from Norway

      • $100 billion promise from U.S.

  • Mexico has already requested $47 billion line of credit

  • Will the IMF become a global Central Bank?

Will the us come to the rescue and again take on the role of global hegemon l.jpg
Will the US come to the rescue and again take on the role of global hegemon

Everyone Chill Out!

II Got this!

Dollar strengthened as world s reserve currency l.jpg
Dollar strengthened as world’s reserve currency? global


Taking in the world s distressed goods l.jpg
Taking in the world’s distressed goods? global

  • Now it’s toxic assets

  • U.S.Promise not to close its market

  • Other G20 countries promised too

  • Are bail-outs of domestic industries acts of protectionism?

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Is the US is an unconscious global Hegemon?

  • Was the US always an unconscious hegemon?

  • Does the world really need a hegemon in Kindelberger’s sense?

  • Will international institutions do the trick?

  • Or will everyone keep their markets open because they have learned that it is the best thing to do?

And now back to the arctic l.jpg

And now back to the Arctic…. global

Can global governance solve the problems we discussed on Tues?

The polar regions as global commons l.jpg
The Polar Regions as global commons global

  • Antarctic is defined by treaty as global commons

  • Antarctic is governed as global commons

  • Antarctic treaty treats science as “common good”

  • In contrast, Arctic regional governance is restricted to Arctic states

Antarctica as a global commons l.jpg
Antarctica as a global Commons global

Antarctic: Earth's only continent  without a native human population,

and a land mass surrounded by


makes definition as a

“global Commons”

easier and Antarctic

Governance as a

“commons” Unique

all land and ice shelves south

of 60°S latitude parallel.

The treaty has now

been signed by

46 countries,

Does it work l.jpg
Does it work? global

  • Members dedicated to scientific research

  • But states have to continue to place a high priority on environmental protection.

  • Can clash with private goals

And there is a conflict between science and environmental ngos l.jpg
And there is a conflict between science and environmental NGOs……

  • The Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) was established to continue co-operative scientific research

  • . Even so, the scientific community clashes with environmental organizations.

  • SCAR is chronically short of money. It relies on national committees made up of scientists who in large measure are dependent on the public purse.

  • Governments wishing to ignore scientists could still do so. Alone, the SCAR would not have a lot of direct influence.”

  • In the absence of support from other international actors of influence scientific interests are unlikely to prevail when in conflict with other interests.

Turning to the arctic can it too be treated as a global commons it is different l.jpg
Turning to the Arctic: Can it too be treated as a Global Commons? It is different……

  • It is an ocean

  • surrounded by land

  • Contains a local

  • population including Indigenous inhabitants

  • Governance is thus

  • subject to sovereignty Claims, some disputed

Arctic is not defined as a global commons l.jpg
Arctic is not defined as a global commons Commons? It is different……

  • Though science treats it as a “global commons,” the Arctic is not governed by an international treaty

  • Whereas the Antarctic is a special conservation area, the inhabitants of the Arctic make use of the region’s rich natural resources for their livelihood and social and economic development.

What about the arctic council l.jpg
What about the Arctic Council? Commons? It is different……

International cooperation in the arctic council l.jpg
international cooperation in the Arctic Council….. Commons? It is different……

  • A large part of the work of the Arctic Council is science-based. Different working groups engage in efforts to fill the gaps in existing circumpolar knowledge, covering new areas or areas where information has been either scarce or hard to access.

  • Examples: two major assessments of pollution in the Arctic, showing, among other things, rising trends of mercury contamination in some areas of the region and the Arctic Human Development Report on cultural, social and economic conditions in the Arctic.

So if global governance doesn t work or is imperfect what about private governance l.jpg
So if global governance doesn’t work (or is imperfect), what about Private governance?

  • Just who, exactly, would govern?

  • What are the benefits?

  • Example: success despite failure of Kyoto

  • Other environmental issues

Still no democracy l.jpg
Still no democracy…… what about Private governance?

Imagine Golden here…..

Where does the economic nationalist stand on the issue of governing globalization l.jpg
Where does the economic nationalist stand on the issue of governing globalization?

  • The soft-core economic nationalist

    • Don’t like public or private governance because…..

  • The Hard-core economic nationalist

    • Think both are silly because…….

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The common theme in the criticism…. governing globalization?

  • Banning politics in the name of economic efficiency is not a good idea !!!

Could regionalism be a solution l.jpg
Could Regionalism be a solution? governing globalization?

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What do you think? governing globalization?

The End