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A simple innovation that can transform schooling. Kieran Egan Imaginative Education Research Group Faculty of Education Simon Fraser University. Criteria of Education. Education should include both breadth and depth of knowledge By breadth we mean:

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slide1

A simple innovation that can transform schooling

Kieran Egan

Imaginative Education Research Group

Faculty of Education

Simon Fraser University

slide2

Criteria of Education

  • Education should include both breadthand depth of knowledge
  • By breadth we mean:
  • knowledge of the world around one
  • how it got this way
  • utilitarian knowledge
  • exposure to the arts
slide3

Criteria of Education

  • Education should include both breadthand depth of knowledge
  • By breadth we mean:
  • knowledge of the world around one
  • how it got this way
  • utilitarian knowledge
  • exposure to the arts
  • By depth we mean:
  • learn about the nature of knowledge
  • distinguish knowledge from opinion
  • gain expertise
  • Currently education aims for breadth for all, depth for hardly any.
slide4

“If one is master of one thing and understands one thing well, one has, at the same time, insight into and understanding of many things.”  

(Vincent Van Gogh)

slide5

Quick Overview:

  • LiD is an ongoing learning process that engages a child from their first day of school to their last
  • The first day of school each student is assigned a topic they will learn about throughout their school years
  • Over the years students create a portfolio about their topic; they do this in addition to their regular curriculum. The portfolio is ungraded
  • Students work in collaboration with teachers, parents, peers, older students, and possibly experts, both during, and more often, after school
  • Students have the opportunity to demonstrate their growing knowledge at school presentations
  • Each student graduates with true expertise
slide6

How would this be done?

The Case of Sara:

During the first week of school, Sara, and her parents, attend a special ceremony at which she proudly receives a portfolio with the topic she will study throughout her school years.

slide8

Over the years, Sara…

  • meets regularly with her teacher for suggestions that will help her explore her topic
  • explores resources with her parents, her friends, and older students who are studying the same topic
  • shares resources with her peers and collaborates on projects
  • presents her portfolio to her teachers, classmates, and parents
slide9

Sara explores many avenues

  • Over the years Sara explores many fields to build her portfolio.
  • Biology– there are 7,200 varieties of apple in the world
  • Geography– apples originated in Kazakhstan
  • Physics– legend of Newton, a falling apple, and gravity
  • Poetry, literature, sayings – “the golden apples of the sun,” “the apple of my eye,” “an apple a day, keeps the doctor away”
  • Health– apples protected sailors from scurvy
  • Genetics– some apples are genetically modified to resist disease
  • Ecology– some pesticides have reduced apples’ ability to reproduce
  • Art– Magritte and Cezanne both painted green apples

This process allows her to develop both breadth and depth of knowledge.

slide10

Sara explores in many ways

  • She explores apples through many different modes to make the topic her own. She…
  • does field work – goes to her local store with her dad to observe different varieties of apples
  • visits the library – her librarian helps her search how apples have been used over the years
  • conducts experiments – bakes different apples to look at effect of heat on different varieties
  • performs web searches – she locates Kazakhstan and prints out a map
  • makes graphs and charts
  • draws pictures and makes models
  • writes stories and poems
  • This process also allows her to develop both breadth and depth of knowledge.
slide11

Over time …

In each new grade as Sara acquires new tools and new ways of knowing the world, her ability to learn, and her expertise about her topic, increase and improve …

slide12

Until eventually…

… she becomes an expert on her topic.

Over the years:

Sara has gained sufficient depth of knowledge about her topic to make it her own and become an expert

Through the process:

Sara has also become an expert at learning; she has developed a sense of agency that motivates her to learn, and has acquired the skills necessary to learn about any topic

Ultimately:

Sara now has an enriched understanding of what knowledge is, and an approach that will allow her to be a successful life-long learner

slide13

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
slide14

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
slide15

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
  • not concerned with material that will lead to depression or violence
slide16

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
  • not concerned with material that will lead to depression or violence
  • not too technical, especially at the beginning
slide17

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
  • not concerned with material that will lead to depression or violence
  • not too technical
  • not too general nor particular- (animals/Bengal tigers--> cats)
slide18

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
  • not concerned with material that will lead to depression or violence
  • not too technical
  • not too general nor particular- (animals/Bengal tigers--> cats)
  • adequate local materials available for early years
slide19

A Word About Topics

  • Criteria
  • Topics need to be:
  • complex
  • varied
  • multi-dimensional
  • Things to consider:
  • sufficient breadth, sufficient depth
  • multi-dimensional richness: cultural ties as well as emotional and imaginative ties
  • not concerned with material that will lead to depression or violence
  • not too technical
  • not too general nor particular- (animals/Bengal tigers--> cats)
  • adequate local materials available for early years
  • acceptable to parents/caregivers
slide21

It’s not all roses:

  • The Q and A part

IERG has introduced the Learning in Depth concept over the past few years through presentations, forums, and classroom discussions.

Teachers, school administrators, students, and parents have provided us with many comments, objections, and questions.

Here are some of them…

slide22

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Students will get bored.”

slide23

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Students will get bored.”

A. Boredom is a product of ignorance, not knowledge.

When students become engaged with their topic and make it their own, they start to have fun and are motivated to learn more.

slide24

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Students should be given some choice.”

slide25

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Students should be given some choice.”

A. Everything is “wonderful” if you know enough about it!

Each topic is chosen so that it will engage a child, a teen, a young adult. A topic a child may find captivating and choose on their own at six should not be their millstone at sixteen.

objections comments answers and responses
Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Why would you force a student to learn so much about a limited and possibly useless topic for years?”

objections comments answers and responses1
Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “Why would you force a student to learn so much about a limited and possibly useless topic for years?”

A. To learn the pleasure of learning.

Only by learning in depth can one come to understand the greatest pleasures of learning. And it’s hardly “forcing”. Students routinely say that LiD is their favourite activity in school.

slide28

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “This would not be suitable for students requiring special education.”

slide29

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “This would not be suitable for students requiring special education.”

A. Building their own knowledge and their own portfolios, with no pressures, or tests, or assumed norms to which they should reach or conform, provides a very comfortable context for learning.

Special education students will likely need more help starting their portfolios.

slide30

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It’s too complicated to organize.”

slide31

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It’s too complicated to organize.”

A. With a limited number of topics, and help from older students, librarians, and parents, it can be done.

There are unquestionably complications in introducing this—but its educational value merits dealing with the difficulties. None of these complications is compellingly difficult.

slide32

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It is impossible to grade.”

slide33

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It is impossible to grade.”

A. It won’t be graded.

Teachers will help students engage with a topic in an inquiring, imaginative, and enjoyable way, without stress and anxiety.

slide34

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It won’t get teacher buy in.”

slide35

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It won’t get teacher buy in.”

A. Some teachers say “It’s what I got into teaching for!”

Many teachers have responded with enthusiasm to the opportunity for teaching in a more imaginative and creative way.

Some are more wary of this innovation.

slide36

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It won’t get administrators to buy in.”

slide37

Objections, Comments, Answers and Responses

Obj. “It won’t get administrators to buy in.”

A. Many administrators say “It’s a natural for teachers and community involvement.”

Many administrators see this as an opportunity to motivate teachers, involve parents and get their support, and build community.

Some are more wary.

slide38

The benefits of LiD

  • For Students:
  • Provides opportunity to acquire expert knowledge of a topic
  • Teaches learning skills applicable to all knowledge areas
  • Engages students’ imaginations and emotions in learning
  • Removes the vulnerability of ignorance
  • Builds confidence
  • Encourages life-long learning
  • Opportunity to share knowledge and to learn from a variety of people in a variety of ways
slide39

The benefits of LiD

  • For Teachers:
  • Encourages discovery along with the student
  • Removes the pressure of grading
  • Provides the pleasure of working with enthusiastic learner
  • Enriches learning of the regular curriculum
  • For Schools:
  • Provides for exchange and cooperation between students in different grades
  • Enriches the culture of the school
  • Provides a community focus of interest
slide40

What do we do next?

  • Depends on who “we” are…
  • a Teacher
  • a Parent
  • a Faculty Member
  • an Administrator
  • the Ministry
  • the Emperor of the Educational Galaxy
slide41

Further Information

For more information:

To get one of our publications, to sign up for a workshop, or to share your ideas about the LiD approach to education go to www.ierg.net/LiD or contact us at ierg-ed@sfu.ca.

K. Egan, Learning in Depth: A simple innovation that can transform schooling.

Chicago: Chicago University Press. 2010.

"This is a fascinating, provocative, utterly visionary and courageously speculative imagining of an educational future that is simultaneously elite and egalitarian, deeply intellectual yet utterly connected to passion and identity. A most audacious proposal from one of education's most audacious thinkers . . . an inspiring challenge to those who aspire to deep understanding for their students.”

Lee S. Shulman, President Emeritus,The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.