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Populism and Jim Crow

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  1. PopulismandJim Crow

  2. The Wizard of Oz, 1939

  3. The Wizard of Oz, Frank Baum (1900) - an allegory of the silver standard debate? Yellow brick road = gold standard Magical silver slippers (ruby slippers in movie) = silver standard Political coalition: Scarecrow = farmers Tin Woodman = workers Cowardly Lion = politicians Wizard = the President Oz = Washington, DC Munchkins = the People Wicked Witch of the West = the corporation or Trust (enemy of the People)

  4. Outline for Today: 1. Agrarian Protest 2. Role of Labor and Women’s Movements 3. Jim Crow Laws and Violence 4. Response of Black Leaders

  5. A Populist family from Nebraska

  6. “Which Will Win?” New York Graphic, 1973

  7. Cartoon about Populist unity

  8. 1896 Republical Party anti-silver standard poster

  9. William Jennings Bryan Swallowing the Democratic Party, Judge, 1896

  10. William Jennings Bryan’s Cross of Gold speech

  11. Election map of 1896 - republican candidate, William McKinley wins

  12. Samuel Gompers, founder and president of the American Federation of Labor

  13. Mary Elizabeth Lease, Speech, 1890 [speaks to an audience of women] “Speech to the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union”[equality] … there is no difference between the brain of an intelligent woman and the brain of an intelligent man. [participation] … The doors of the Farmers’ Alliance were thrown open wide to women of the land. … we find at the present time upward of a half-million women in the Alliance …[political power] … to these women, unknown and uncrowned, belongs the honor of defeating for reelection to the United States Senate of a man [who argued that] “a woman could not and should not vote because she was a woman.”[addresses white demands only] … as grand Senator [William Morris] Stewart [of Nevada] puts it, “For twenty years the market value of the dollar has gone up and the market value of labor has gone down, till to-day the American laborer, in bitterness and wrath, asks which is the worst—the black slavery that has gone or the white slavery that has come?”

  14. Editorial cartoon on Plessy v. Ferguson

  15. Jim Crow, a minstrel theater character used to name the practice of segregation

  16. Separate water fountains and coolers, 1939

  17. Separate movie theater entrance, 1939

  18. Violence as instrument of social control Slave whippings (Barrow plantation): 0.7 per black per year Every 4,5 days - a slave saw one of their number whipped Lynchings (155 in 1893s): 0.00002 per black per year Consider word of mouth, newspapers, and postcards

  19. Lynching postcard http://www.withoutsanctuary.org/main.html

  20. Booker T. Washington

  21. Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise Speech A ship lost at sea for many days suddenly sighted a friendly vessel. From the mast of the unfortunate vessel was seen a signal: “Water, water. We die of thirst.” The answer from the friendly vessel at once came back: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A second time, the signal, “Water, send us water!” went up from the distressed vessel. And was answered: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” A third and fourth signal for water was answered: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” The captain of the distressed vessel, at last heeding the injunction, cast down his bucket and it came up full of fresh, sparkling water from the mouth of the Amazon River. To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land, or who underestimate the importance of preservating friendly relations with the southern white man who is their next door neighbor, I would say: “Cast down your bucket where you are.” Cast it down, making friends in every manly way of the people of all races, by whom you are surrounded.

  22. W. E. B. DuBois “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others,” 1903 The other class of Negroes who cannot agree with Mr. Washington … feel in conscience bound to ask of this nation three things. 1. The right to vote. 2 Civic equality. 3 The education of youth according to ability.

  23. Populism and Jim Crow Timeline 1874 Women’s Christian Temperance Union established 1883 Supreme Court: the Civil Rights Act does not apply to individuals 1890 “The Mississippi Plan” and the “Purity Clause” 1892 Populist Party organized 1895 Booker T. Washington’s Atlanta Compromise speech 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 William McKinley wins presidential election 1898 Louisiana’s “Grandfather Clause” 1900 Gold Standard Act 1900 Frank Baum’s The Wizard of Oz 1903 W.E.B. DuBois responds to Booker T. Washington Themes: 1. Agrarian Protest 2. Role of Labor and Women’s Movements 3. Jim Crow Laws and Violence 4. Response of Black Leaders

  24. Imperialism

  25. Bush on Iraq and the Philippines President George W. Bush: ''Some say the culture of the Middle East will not sustain the institutions of democracy. The same doubts were once expressed about the culture of Asia. Those doubts were proven wrong nearly six decades ago.” (October 2003) New York Times, October 19, 2003 “In an eight-hour visit, Mr. Bush for the first time drew explicit comparisons between the transition he is seeking in Iraq and the rough road to democracy that the Philippines traveled from the time the United States seized it from Spain in 1898 to the present day… While the administration often speaks of the occupations of Japan and Germany after World War II as rough models for the effort to rebuild Iraq, Mr. Bush used the visit here to make a less explicit analogy to the American administration of the Philippines, which also led to the formation of a democracy. But the comparison has less power to reassure, given that the Philippine government did not gain full autonomy for five decades.”

  26. U.S. Military Base in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba

  27. Outline for Today: 1. Reasons of Expansion 2. War in the Caribbean and the Pacific 3. Occupation and Social Darwinism 4. Anti-Imperialism

  28. 1. Reasons of Expansion

  29. Reasons for expansion 1. Official: liberate Cuba and the Philippines 2. Fear of competition with Europe 3. Need for new markets and sources for raw materials 4. Need for military bases

  30. USS Maine in Havana, 1898

  31. Wreck of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor, March 17-April 1, 1898

  32. William Randolph Hearst newspapers promoted Spanish-American War, 1898

  33. Hearst and Pulitzer make war

  34. 2. War in the Caribbean and the Pacific

  35. Spanish-American War: The Caribbean, 1898

  36. Spanish-American War: The Pacific, 1898

  37. Territories acquired in 1898 The Philippines: achieved independence in 1946Hawaii: traditional territory, admitted as a state in 1959Guam: “unincorporated” territory, administered by US Navy until 1950Puerto Rico: “Commonwealth,” US citizenship extended in 1917 but cannot elect US Presidents

  38. 3. Occupation and Social Darwinism

  39. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt

  40. Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders,” photo

  41. Teddy Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders,” drawing depicts no black troops

  42. Colored Troops Disembarking, 1898 (actual footage)

  43. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go, bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait, in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught sullen peoples, Half devil and half child. Take up the White Man's burden! Have done with childish days-- The lightly-proffered laurel, The easy ungrudged praise: Comes now, to search your manhood Through all the thankless years, Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom, The judgment of your peers.

  44. “The White Man’s Burden,” Judge, 1890s

  45. President William McKinley “civilizing” Filipinos

  46. Filipino casualties on the first day of Philippine-American War

  47. Advance of Kansas Volunteers at Caloocan, 1899 (reenacted by New Jersey National Guard)

  48. 4. Anti-Imperialism

  49. Co-founders of the Anti-Imperialist League: Andrew Carnegie, steel magnate

  50. Co-founders of the Anti-Imperialist League: Grover Cleveland, former president