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High Technology Surgery. Mr McDonald. Downloaded from SchoolHistory.co.uk. What we will learn today:. How developments in surgery have progressed What factors have played a part in these developments. X-Rays.

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high technology surgery

High Technology Surgery

Mr McDonald

Downloaded from SchoolHistory.co.uk

what we will learn today
What we will learn today:
  • How developments in surgery have progressed
  • What factors have played a part in these developments.
x rays
X-Rays
  • Originally developed in 1895 by Wilhelm Rontgen, they really came into effect in World War One when finding bullets in the body really showed the usefulness of the X-Ray machine.
  • X-Rays made it possible to see inside the body without having to cut inside.
electrocardiograph
Electrocardiograph
  • Developed in 1903 by Willem Einthoven it allowed a doctor to monitor a patient’s heartbeat in a more effective manner.
  • This was highly useful in surgery to gauge how a patient was doing.
kidney machine
Kidney Machine
  • Developed in 1943 by Willem Kolff (a Dutch Surgeon).
  • It pioneered the move to get machines to do the jobs the body could not do through illness or injury.
heart and lung machine
Heart and Lung Machine
  • This machine allowed the heart and lungs to stop working allowing surgery to be performed whilst the machine took over.
  • The first operation using it was in 1953.
microscopes
Microscopes
  • Not the usual type but ones for surgery.
  • In the 1960s, along with fine sutures and needles it allowed surgery to be performed on blood vessels and nerves – even reattach limbs.
  • This led to the development of MICRO-SURGERY.
fibre optics
Fibre Optics
  • This is more commonly known as ‘key hole’ surgery.
  • This was surgery that was not invasive and did not need major cutting inside the human body.
case study heart surgery
Case Study: Heart Surgery
  • Before World War Two operations to do with the heart were rarely considered as a viable idea. This was because if the heart stopped for more than four minutes then the brain would die from a lack of oxygen!
  • World War Two provided some change as surgeons needed to repair wounded soldiers’ hearts.
dwight harken
Dwight Harken
  • He was an army surgeon in WW2.
  • He used to open the heart and fish out bits of shrapnel and bullets. Of course this was risky but it did sometimes work and was far better than the alternative.
  • However his pioneering work did little about people with defective hearts who needed longer operations!
progression
Progression
  • Canadian Bill Biggelow believed reducing the temperature of the body would lower the heart rat and thus provide more time.
  • He was correct however there was still not enough time to perform complex operations with any degree of success.
pioneers in heart surgery
Pioneers in Heart Surgery
  • Norman Shumway – University of Minnesota. He developed heart surgery although up to 50% of patients died.
  • Michael de Blakey – Methodist Hospital Texas. He used new technology to replace diseased arteries. (Dacron)
  • Both men made progress but the problem of transplanting a heart (tissue rejection remained.
christian barnard
Christian Barnard
  • Surgeon in South Africa.
  • In 1967 he transplanted a heart from a road accident victim to Louis Washkansky (he died after eighteen days)
  • Rejection of the heart was still a problem. The drugs used practically killed off his immune system so he died of pneumonia.
christian barnard18
Christian Barnard
  • Hero or villain?
  • Many saw him as a hero but public expectation of surgery was too high considering the dangers of rejection were still there.
  • Others saw him as a villain who exploited the patients for his ego.
  • In the end, heart transplants stopped until rejection was solved.
developments
Developments
  • To counter the issue of heart transplants, an artificial heart was developed. In 1982 Barney Clarke received one and lived for three weeks.
  • However in 1974, the issue of rejection was solved.
  • A drug called Cyclosporin was developed that reduced the risk of tissue rejection. By 1987, over 90% of transplants ended with the patient living over two years
today
Today
  • Transplants are routine.
  • Careful use of drugs to control rejection means that patients have better chance of survival however this is all linked to a number of factors
      • The skill of the Surgeon
      • The development of drugs
      • The care of the patient in Intensive Care
      • The development of new technologies
conclusion an overview
Conclusion: An Overview
  • Prior work by Joseph Lister and others in the 19th century on anaesthetics and antiseptics.
  • Development of aseptic surgery – surgery without germs.
  • Discovery of different blood groups.
  • Specialisation within surgery; heart, brain etc.
  • Developments in science X-Ray, CAT Scan etc.
  • War – speeded up development e.g. plastic surgery.