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“The Road To War”. MIDDLE COLONIES. 4 - Fighting for Independence. British & American Strengths and Weaknesses Siege of Boston Bunker Hill “The Road to WAR”. + NAVY (LARGE) FACTORIES ENGINEERS NONCOMMISSION OFFICERS CENTRAL GOV’T WEALTH SUPPORT at Home. -

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4 fighting for independence
4 - Fighting for Independence
  • British & American Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Siege of Boston
  • Bunker Hill
  • “The Road to WAR”
british
+

NAVY (LARGE)

FACTORIES

ENGINEERS

NONCOMMISSION OFFICERS

CENTRAL GOV’T

WEALTH

SUPPORT at Home

-

SHORT TROOPS (MERCENARIES) -Hessians

3,000 M ILES

UNFAMILIAR GROUND

SMOOTHBORE WEAPONS

BRITISH
americans
+

Idealistic “Cause”

Familiar Ground

Warfare Tactics

Rifles

-

NO Navy

NO Organized Military

NO Central Gov’t

NO Finances

AMERICANS
slide7
May 1775- 2nd Continental Cong.
    • June (Washington - Commander)
  • Ethan Allen/Green Mtn. Boys
    • Fort Ticonderoga Henry Knox (cannons-Ticonderoga)
  • “`Battle of Bunker Hill” (Breed’s Hill)
    • John Burgoyne
    • Henry Clinton
    • William Howe (Redcoats)
slide8
Benedict Arnold (Quebec)
  • British Refuse “Peace” Petition
    • Olive Branch Petition
  • Thomas Paine - Common Sense
  • Patriots DeclareIndependence
slide9
Loyalists v. PATRIOTS
    • Tories (Reasons )
  • Pacifists (Quakers )
  • Self-Interest (Wealth & positions)
  • presence of British Troops
  • Loyalists Leave / Overestimated
slide10
NEW YORK: Aug. 22,1776 Landings Washington 20,000 many untrained Howe 32,000 (8,000 Hessians) - Long Island -White Plains -Retreats into New Jersey
  • TRENTON 12/24/76 “Delaware River” 1,400 Hessians captured (5 casualties)
  • PRINCETON 1/3/77
  • “Patriot Moral Victories”
slide13
Gen. Burgoyne marches from Canada toward Albany 7,000 troops
  • takes Fort Ticonderoga -looses Hessian troops at the “Battle of Bennington”
  • Burgoyne’s troops “harrassed” all along the way
  • Battle of SARATOGA
  • Oct. 17,1777 surrenders to Gen. Horatio Gates(Turning Point)
  • - Feb. 1778 France recognizes U.S. - 1779 Spain / 1780 Netherlands
slide14
Aug. 25, 1776 Howe - Philadelphia
  • -Sept. Brandywine to stop British -Sept. 25 Philadelphia “British” -Oct. 4 Germantown
  • Monmouth-
  • “Valley Forge” -11,000 troops, little supplies
  • Friedrich von Steuben (Prussian) train american troops
  • Casimir Pulaski (Polish) Cavalry Unit
slide16
1778 - George Rogers Clark and his Virginia Volunteers travel Ohio River capture British Forts at:
  • at Vincennes
  • NOW they will claim the whole NORTHWEST TERRITORY
slide18
Fall 1778 British take Savannah
  • May 1780 Cornwallis/ Clinton take Charles Town (Capture 5,500 rebels)
  • Camden smashes American forces
  • “Guerrilla warfare” of rebels like: Francis Marion(swamp fox), Andrew Pickens and Thomas Sumter (slow down & buy time for help)
  • Kings Mtn (Bunker Hill in reverse)
  • Cowpens(Nathaniel Greene)
  • Guilford Court Cornwallis to Virginia (move to VA. - new troops & supplies)
slide20
By 1780, French had joined the war
  • Marquis de Lafayette “idea” -Combine armies & attack Cornwallis before he can be re-supplied
  • French Fleet attacks “Chesapeake Bay” (Cut-off British Army)
  • 8,000 French / 9,000 American troops
  • Oct. 19, 1781 Cornwallis Surrenders
    • YORKTOWN -
    • War is OVER
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