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FUNGI. 22-1 Characteristics of Fungi 22-2 Fungal Diversity 22-3 Fungal Associations. Fungi Kingdom .

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fungi

FUNGI

22-1 Characteristics of Fungi

22-2 Fungal Diversity

22-3 Fungal Associations

fungi kingdom
Fungi Kingdom

Fungi are heterotrophic – the stalk and the cap of a mushroom are not green like the leaves of a plant; plants appear green because they contain chlorophyll; fungi do not contain chlorophyll; fungi obtain energy by absorbing organic molecules from their surroundings

fungi kingdom1
Fungi Kingdom
  • Fungi have filamentous bodies – the long slender filaments weave tightly together to form the fungus body and reproductive structures
  • A giant fungus of the species Armillaria ostoyae in the Malheur National Forest in Oregon was found to span 8.9 km² (2,200 acres), which would make it the largest organism by area.
fungi kingdom2
Fungi Kingdom
  • Fungal cells contain chitin – cells of all fungi have walls made of chitin (the tough material found in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods)
fungi kingdom3
Fungi Kingdom
  • Fungi have nuclear mitosis – in plants/animals the nuclear envelope disintegrates during mitosis; in mushrooms the nuclear membrane remains intact and mitosis is complete when the nuclear membrane pinches in two
fungi structure
Fungi Structure
  • Hyphae – slender filaments that make up fungi bodies
  • Mycelium – tangled mass of hyphae
fungi are heterotrophic
Fungi are Heterotrophic
  • Fungi digest food outside their bodies
  • Hyphae tips secrete powerful digestive enzymes that break down organic matter
fungi are decomposers
Fungi are Decomposers
  • In their search of food, many fungi attack nonliving organic matter and decompose these materials.
  • Other fungi absorb nutrients from living hosts, which sometimes become weakened and succumb to infection or disease.
fungi reproduction
Fungi Reproduction
  • Fungi reproduce by releasing spores.
  • Spores form in reproductive structures (basidia) at the tips of hyphae.
  • Reproductive structures (mushrooms) extend high above the food source so that air currents can carry the spores to a new habitat.
  • When a spore lands in a suitable place, it begins to divide and soon gives rise to a new fungal hypha.
spores
SPORES
  • Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporophyte.
  • a spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions.
  • A chief difference between spores and seeds as dispersal units is that spores have very little stored food resources compared with seeds.
  • Once conditions are favorable, the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte.
phyla of fungi
Phyla of Fungi
  • Zygomycota: black bread molds
  • Ascomycota: morels, truffles, yeasts, cup fungi
  • Basidiomycota: mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, smuts
  • Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti - sexual reproduction has not been observed): Penicillium, athletes foot, ringworm, blue cheese mold
fungal associations
Fungal Associations
  • Lichen – symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic partner in which the fungal partner protects the photosynthetic
  • Mycorrhizae – symbiotic association in which a fungus transfers minerals to a plant’s roots, which in turn supply carbohydrates to the fungus
fungi quiz
Fungi Quiz

Label the parts of the mushroom

fungi quiz1
Fungi Quiz
  • What substance makes up the cell walls of fungi?

CHITIN

fungi quiz2
Fungi Quiz
  • How do fungi obtain energy?

FUNGI ARE HETEROTROPHIC DECOMPOSERS.

THE HYPHAE TIPS SECRETE AN ENZYME THAT BREAK DOWN ORGANIC MATERIAL.

fungi quiz3
Fungi Quiz
  • How do fungi reproduce?

FUNGI REPRODUCE BY SPORES.

fungi quiz4
Fungi Quiz
  • Molds belong in the ________ phylum.

ZYGOMYCOTA

fungi quiz5
Fungi Quiz
  • Yeast belongs in the __________ phylum.

ASCOMYCOTA

fungi quiz6
Fungi Quiz
  • Mushrooms belong in the __________ phylum.

BASIDIOMYCOTA

fungi quiz7
Fungi Quiz
  • Describe the symbiotic association that occurs in lichen.

A fungus and a photosynthetic partner in which the fungal partner protects the photosynthetic partner

fungi quiz8
Fungi Quiz
  • Describe the symbiotic association that occurs in mycorrhizae.

Fungus transfers minerals to a plant’s roots, which in turn supply carbohydrates to the fungus

vocabulary due monday
Vocabulary – Due Monday
  • Endomycorrihizae
  • Hypha
  • Fungi imperfecti
  • Lichen
  • Mycelium
  • Septa
  • Yeast
  • Zygosporangia
  • Ascocarp
  • Ascus
  • Basidium
  • Chitin
  • Dikaryon
  • Dikaryotic
  • Ectomycorrhizae
  • Endomycorrihizae
fungus survey
Fungus Survey
  • Day 1 – Mushroom and Yeast
  • Day 2 – Mold and Lichen
mushroom
Mushroom
  • Diagram mushroom – label cap, stem, gills