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The War of 1812. Objective: ACOS 10.6 Describe relations of the U.S. with Britain and France from 1781 to 1832 , including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine. Causes of the War. Impressment Seizure of cargo Trade Restrictions Failed Negotiations with the British

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The War of 1812

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the war of 1812

The War of 1812

Objective: ACOS 10.6 Describe relations of the U.S. with Britain and France from 1781 to 1832 , including the XYZ Affair, the War of 1812 and the Monroe Doctrine.

causes of the war
Causes of the War
  • Impressment
  • Seizure of cargo
  • Trade Restrictions
  • Failed Negotiations with the British
  • British role in Native American attacks on settlers.
the war hawks
The War Hawks
  • Who were they?
    • Henry Clay (Kentucky)
    • John C. Calhoun (South Carolina)
    • Felix Grundy (Tennessee)
  • Why did the South want to go to war?
    • Trade restrictions hurt Southern and Western farmers who sold tobacco, rice, wheat and cotton overseas.
    • NE merchants made money by passing costs of lost cargo onto S and W farmers.
native american issues
Native American Issues
  • Settlers on the frontier facing attack from Native Americans
  • Tecumseh – Shawnee Chief who believed that the Native Americans needed to unite to protect their land
    • Tenskwatawa – his brother and spiritual leader
    • Lived on the Tippecanoe River in Indiana
  • William Henry Harrison – governor of Indiana
    • Saw the militant rise of Tecumseh and wanted to stamp it out.
native american issues1
Native American Issues
  • Battle of Tippecanoe
    • November 1811 – Tenskwatawa struck first against the Americans near the Tippecanoe River
    • Left about ¼ of the American force wounded or dead
    • Natives lost much more
      • Shattered their confidence in leadership
      • They fled to Canada (including Tecumseh)
    • Contributed to the American belief that the British were arming the Native Americans
native american issues2
Native American Issues
  • Horseshoe Bend – Tallapoosa River, Alabama
    • Battle between Red Stick Creeks and Tennessee Volunteers led by Major General Andrew Jackson
    • Decisive win for the Americans
      • One soldier called the Tallapoosa a “river of blood”
      • Resulted in Creek loss of most of their land.
      • Jackson gained fame for his part in the battle.
the war begins
The War Begins
  • Problems arise
    • Not a popular war (“Mr. Madison’s War)
    • Very small military (about 7000 troops, only 16 ships)
    • Paying for the war
      • National bank has been shut down
      • Government can’t borrow money because most private banks are in the Northeast (opposes the war)
the invasion of canada
The Invasion of Canada
  • Three attacks against the British in Canada
    • All three failed:
      • British cut off Americans in Detroit from Lake Erie
      • British drove Americans away from Niagara Falls
      • Planned attack on Montreal called off because General Dearborn’s troops refused to cross the border
  • Lake Erie (September 10, 1813)
      • Commodore Oliver Perry’s fleet attacked the British
      • After a four-hour battle the British surrendered
      • Gave Americans control of the lake
      • Retried the attack on Canada, but it, too, failed
the end of the war
The End of the War
  • Britain’s Three Part Strategy
    • Raid American coastal cities
    • March into New York from Montreal
    • Seize New Orleans and control the Mississippi River
the end of the war1
The End of the War
  • Washington D.C. (August 1814)
    • Entered unopposed
    • Burned the Capitol and White House (Dolly Madison)
  • Baltimore (September 13, 1814)
    • City militia held off the British as they bombarded Ft. McHenry
    • British abandoned the city
the end of the war2
The End of the War
  • Lake Champlain (September 11, 1814)
    • British force of 15,000 defeated by the American naval force
    • Abandoned attempt to control the lake and retreated to Montreal
  • Hartford Convention (December 1814)
    • Federalists from New England meet to discuss opposition to the war
    • Considered seceding from the U.S.
    • Decided instead to ask for several amendments to the Constitution to increase the power of the region.
the battle of new orleans
The Battle of New Orleans
  • January 1815 British fleet lands near New Orleans
  • Using cotton bales for protection, American soldiers easily pick off advancing British troops
  • Easy victory for the Americans under the leadership of General Andrew Jackson
  • Made Jackson a national hero
  • Helped destroy the Federalist party
  • Increased nationalism
the war ends
The War Ends
  • The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814)
    • Ended the war
    • Restored prewar boundaries
    • Did not address impressment or neutral rights
    • No territory changed hands (gained or lost)
    • Increased the nation’s prestige
    • Generated a spirit of patriotism and national unity
  • Canadian border later set at the 49o from Minnesota to the Rocky Mtns.
    • Fill in 10 important events relating to the War of 1812
    • You must use the following five events:
      • The end of the war
      • Battle of New Orleans
      • The beginning of the war
      • Attack on Washington D.C.
      • Lake Champlain
      • Five of your own choosing
    • Include date and DETAILS of each event