DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DISTILLED SPIRITS. Ethanol Colorless mixed with water in every ratio. Density = 0.79 g/ml at 20 C. energy of combustion 7000 kcal/kg boiling point is 78.31 C 85% metabolized in the liver , remaining 15 % lost by respiration, sweating and urination
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DISTILLED ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES DISTILLED SPIRITS
Ethanol • Colorless • mixed with water in every ratio. • Density = 0.79 g/ml at 20 C. • energy of combustion 7000 kcal/kg • boiling point is 78.31 C • 85% metabolized in the liver, remaining 15 % lost by respiration, sweating and urination • etheric oils in ethanol is related with its poisoning effect • lethal dosage is 3 g ethanol / kg body weight
Denatured alcohol Pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed. To relieve the tax burden on not involving human consumptionagents have been added to the ethanol to render it unfit for human consumption. These include bittering agents such as denatonium benzoate, as well as toxins such as methanol, naphtha, and pyridine.
Methanol • Flammable , Colorless • Heat of combustion: 5360 kcal/kg. • mixed with water, and ethanol in every ratio. • During alcohol fermentation Pectin Methanol • Pectinesterase ( opt. PH =5-6) • When pH methanol • Heating fruit must to 85 C for 90 minutes reduces methanol formation by 40-90 %. • Methanol is poisonous for human • almost impossible to produce methanol free drinks.
Factors that cause to increase methanol content of alcoholic beverages are; • insufficient heating of must • some contaminating molds ( ie Batryis cineroe) breakdowns pectins • existence of heat resistant pectinesterases • if must contacts more with skin and stem, methanol production will increase
In the bodyconverted to formaldehyde first and than formic acid, which is poisonous. less effective to make people drunk than ethanol. • good solvent for lipids (affects control nervous system and eyes.) • Limiting values:< 0.35 % at USA and 1.5 % at EC and in Turkish drinks less than 0.3 %.
Factors affecting ethanol fermentation : • -oxygen ( initial stage. aeration is necessary ) • -CO2 ( if P CO2 is too high ( ie 20 atm ) fermentation completely stops. • -temperature ( 25-30 C is good for microbial growth but 30-37 C are better for ethanol production ) • -pH ( weak acidic medium is good for ethanol production, optimum pH is 3.8-4.2 ) • -inoculation rate ( 1-2 % is optimum ) • -sugar concentration ( culture should stand very high osmotic pressure )
Distillation • simple distillation : ( single stage batch distillation , equipment is called still, imbik in turkish) • 10 % ethanol 32.7 % 58.3 % • 1st distillation 2nd 3rd • 74.8 % 83.2 % 87.3 % ethanol • 4th 5th • Continuous ( column ) distillation: Better separation of higher alcohol occurs • After distillation residual material with no alcohol left is called as stillage (şilempe in Turkish) • We can not produce ethanol with concentration over 95 % because we get azeotrope formation at that concentration
Absolute ethanol production • nonideal mixtures: Raoult’s Law does not hold. • At an azeotrope, the solution and the vapor composition are same, so that evaporation does not change the purity, and distillation does not effect separation. Ethanol and water form an azeotrope of 95% at 78.2°C.
azeotropic distillation. • by "jumping" over the azeotropic composition (by adding an additional component to create a new azeotrope). • Others: chemically or physically remove or sequester the impurity. • For example, to purify ethanol beyond 95 %, a drying agent or a dessicant such as potassium carbonate can be added.
Alcohol yields from different substrates • 100 kg substrate ethanol (liter) • sucrose 58-64 • molasses 29-32 • sour cherry 5-8 • apple 5-7 • fresh grape 8-12 • raisin 31-37 • fig(dried) 30 • starch 60-66 • rice 42-47 • wheat 37-41 • potato 10-14
Alcohol scales used • Gay-lussacEnglish proofAmerican proof • EU,Turkey(sikes) • 10 17.520 • 20 • 30 • 40 • 50 87.5 100 (you can have flame with it ) • 60 • 100175200(pure ethanol)
Distilled alcoholic drinks(> 15 % ethanol) also called as distilled spirits or spirits • can be classified as; • aged ones ( usually more than a year ) : brandy, cognac, whisky, rum , arak • not aged ones : rakı, gin, vodka, snaps, tekila, mescal
RAKI PRODUCTION • araki in Arabic, means one that makes you sweat. • Aniseed ( Pimpinella anisum ) is added to ethanol goesthrough distillation. • Main component of • aniseed is anethol, white colored • solid at room temp., does not dissolve in water, requires organic solvent. when we add water to dilute rakı, it becomes white. • Ouzo:Greek drink with aniseed • Anis : French rakı
Gin: Produced from barley malt, corn and flavored with Juniper berries which is fruit of Juniperus communis tree ( ardıç in Turkish) Gin as an English product .colorless , containing at least 37.5% alcohol Gin does not age ( essential oils tend to oxidize and produce the so-called terpene-like character,)
Gin as an English product . colorless , containing at least 37.5% alcohol Gin does not age ( essential oils tend to oxidize and produce the so-called terpene-like character,)
VODKA ( Russian word voda.,vodoshka) fairly tasteless, neutral spiritfrom the fermentation and distillation of grain. other raw materials; potatoes, sugarbeet, grapes, or cassava choice of charcoal(clarification) affects product. EC: the min alcohol 37.5% (vv),eastern Europe, e.g., 45–55%. Turkish vodka : 40 % ethanol ( from barley malt + grain or potato ) + 3 g / sugar + 0.1 % ethylacetate
RUM (Jamaica, Cuba and Puerto rico) • the fermented products of sugarcane molasses and syrup obtained from sugarcane juice concentration • The fermented liquid must be distilled under 96% ethanol • Nowadays, after vodka and whisky, rum is the third spirit consumed through the world • Bacardi is the market leader • Over 95% of the rum produced is from molasses
Fermenting Vat Distilling Column Oak Tun
Light ( silver ) rum; short aging, filtering to remove color after aging Amber(Gold) Rum: Amber rum is stored for 18 months in oak tun Aged(Dark) Rum: Dark Rum (Rhum Vieux), in an oak barrel a min of 3 years ( up to 6 y) oak barrel Example of dark, gold, and light rums
BRANDY • Initially wine was distilled • -for preservation, -easier transportation • -to lessen the tax which was assessed by volume. • (The intent was to add the water removed by distillation back to the brandy shortly before consumption.) • It was discovered: after storage in wooden casks distilled spirit is improved • the distillation process : cause the formation and break-up of dozens of aroma compounds • un-aged wine spirits diluted back to wine alcohol strength tastes nothing like the original wine.
Grape brandy four main subtypes of grape brandies. Cognac comes from the Cognac region in France, and is double distilled using pot stills. Aged > 2.5years VS (Very Special) stored at least two years in cask. VSOP (Very Superior Old Pale), stored at least 4 years in cask. XO (Extra Old), stored at least 6 years in cask. Armanac:grapes of the Armagnac region in Southwest of France. It is single continuous distilled in a copper stills and aged in oak casks
kanyak(in Turkish) . produced at Çanakkale factory. Yapıncak, dökülgen and karasakız type grapes are used. Small amount of pekmez, tartaric acid and vanillin is added. ( 41 % ethanol ) Liquers : Neutral agricultural distilled alcohol ( 96 % ) + aromatic flavor compounds ( such as strawberry, sour cherry , rose, coffee, orange, banana, mint …..) + sugar ( to have > 100 % g / liter ) aged in oak barrels and some natural colorants added. ( alcohol content changes from 20 to 40 % )