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Drugs and Crime. Policy. Drug use and crime. Psychoactive drugs: alter conscious awareness or perception Psychological dependency: person craves a drug Physiological addiction: body becomes biochemically dependent on a drug

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drug use and crime
Drug use and crime
  • Psychoactive drugs: alter conscious awareness or perception
  • Psychological dependency: person craves a drug
  • Physiological addiction: body becomes biochemically dependent on a drug
  • Tolerance: greater doses are necessary to produce the same effect
drugs crime
Drugs & crime
  • Withdrawal: physical and psychological symptoms which develop in an addicted person when he or she abruptly stops or reduces intake of a drug
  • Central nervous system depressants: remove social inhibitions, relieve anxiety, impair judgment. Include alcohol, barbiturates and minor tranquilizers
drugs and crime pharmacological classification
Drugs and crime:Pharmacological classification
  • Central nervous system stimulants: addiction possible, stimulates alertness, wakefulness, euphoria; includes amphetamines, caffeine, nicotine and cocaine and its derivatives (crack, ice)
  • Hallucinogens: non-addicting; effects include hallucinations, sense of timelessness & mystical insights; LSD, mescaline, psilocybin
drugs and crime1
Drugs and crime
  • Narcotics: highly addicting, acts as an analgesic, euphoria; includes morphine, heroin, codeine and Demerol
  • Phencyclidine (PCP): not addicting; causes mental confusion, unfocused aggression, pain relief
  • Marijuana: not addicting, dose dependent effects
legal classification of drugs
Legal classification of drugs
  • Drugs classified from Schedule I Drugs to Schedule V, with I the most restricted and V the least restricted
  • Classified based on: (1) medical usage; and (2) potential for abuse
  • Note that alcohol is not included, yet if it were to be classified, it should be a Schedule I drug
legal classification
Schedule 1: high abuse potential, lack therapeutic utility and safety

II: high abuse potential, but currently accepted for medical practice

Heroin, LSD, peyote, PCP, mescaline

Opium, cocaine, morphine, benzedrine, methadone, amphetamines

Legal classification
legal
Moderate abuse potential, utilized in medical practice

IV: low abuse potential

V: minimal abuse potential, currently used in medical practice

Barbituates, amphetamines

Darvon, phenobarbitol, valium

Cough medicines with small amounts of narcotics

Legal
substance abuse and criminality
Substance abuse and criminality
  • Clear link between drug use and criminality
  • Alcohol
  • Prison inmates 3 times as likely as other males the same age to drink 2+ oz. of liquor per day
  • 25% indicated they had got drunk and hurt someone during last 3 years
drugs and crime2
Drugs and crime
  • Alcohol involved in 2/3 of homicides in a Philadelphia study, about 40% of rape cases
  • about 75% of arrestees have traces of illegal drugs in their systems (DUF studies)
  • In a study of CA inmates, over 40% reported using “heavy drugs” in the last 3 years
drugs and crime3
Drugs and crime
  • Heroin and crack have been most associated with chronic serious offenders
  • Hypotheses
  • 1. Psychopharmacological: drugs contribute to crime by reducing inhibitions (alcohol) or stimulating aggressive behavior (stimulants)
drugs and crime4
Drugs and Crime
  • Economic Compulsivity hypothesis: Addiction to substances contribute to crime to support a habit.
  • Studies of junkies have indicated that many commit crimes to obtain drugs
  • Lifestyle hypothesis: Offenders both use drugs and commit crimes as part of a lifestyle
drugs and crime5
Drugs and crime
  • Studies have found that some individuals commit crimes after becoming addicted (economic)
  • Studies have also found that many abusers were committing crimes before beginning drug usage. During periods of addiction, crimes tended to increase considerably, referred to as “on a run.”
drugs and crime6
Drugs and crime
  • For the latter group, decrease in substance abuse was associated with a decrease, but not stopping, criminal activity
  • For a number of offenders, then, stopping drug use will not stop their criminal behavior, although crimes may decrease
drugs and crime7
Drugs and crime
  • Drugs may also contribute to crime by adding to social disorder
  • Encouraging illegal activities on the part of those already inclined to violence
policies
Policies
  • Reducing drunkenness through increased taxation and cultural discouragement
  • Forbidding alcohol in public places to the convicted (perhaps through an altered driver’s license)
  • Legalization of marijuana
  • Reduce volume of serious drugs (cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin)
policies1
Policies
  • Making treatment more readily available
  • Targeting higher level drug dealers
  • Long sentences for minor dealers takes up prison cells
  • Police tactics focussing on blatant drug dealing (reducing disorder)
  • More effective use of probation and parole
  • Use of methadone