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Heating Control Devices. Electricity for Refrigeration, Heating and Air Conditioning 7th Edition. Chapter 13 Heating Control Devices. Heating Control Devices. Upon completion of this chapter the student will be able to:.

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Heating control devices

Heating Control Devices

Electricity for Refrigeration, Heating and Air Conditioning 7th Edition

Chapter 13 Heating Control Devices


Heating control devices1
Heating Control Devices

Upon completion of this chapter the student will be able to:

  • Explain the purpose of the electrical controls in warm air and hydronic heating applications that are necessary to safely operate and maintain the desired temperature in a conditioned space

  • Describe the pilot safety controls and methods of ignition of the burners in a gas furnace

  • Describe the operation of primary controls used to supervise the operation of an oil burner

  • Draw a wiring diagram of an oil-fired, warm-air furnace

  • Draw a wiring diagram of a gas-fired, warm-air furnace


Heating control devices2
Heating Control Devices

Upon completion of this chapter the student will be able to:

  • Explain the operation of an electric furnace or electric resistance duct heaters and the methods of control that are commonly use

  • Draw the wiring diagram of an electric furnace

  • Troubleshoot a gas furnace

  • Troubleshoot an oil furnace

  • Troubleshoot an electric furnace or electric resist­ance duct heater


Key terms
Key Terms

  • Cad Cell

  • Electrical Resistance Heater

  • Fan Switch

  • Gas Valve

  • Hot Surface Ignition

  • Ignition Module

  • Pilot

  • Pilot Assembly

  • Primary Control

  • Sequencer

  • Spark Ignition

  • Stack Switch

  • Thermocouple


Heating fundamentals
Heating Fundamentals

  • The basic heating appliance used in the heating and cooling industry usually heats air or water, or produces steam.

  • Air is the most popular method of transferring heat from the appliance to the structure, and there are many different styles and designs of warm-air furnaces.

  • Water is also a popular method of transferring heat from the appliance to the conditioned space.


Basic heating controls
Basic Heating Controls

  • In the basic warm-air furnace there are many controls that are applicable to warm-air furnaces regardless of the type of energy that is being used to supply the heat to the structure.


Fan controls
Fan Controls

  • In all types of forced-air heating equipment there must be some method of controlling the fan motor in order that the warm air is delivered to the conditioned space at the correct temperature.

  • There are several types of fan switches used in industry: Temperature Controlled, Time and Temperature Controlled, and Time Controlled.


Temperature controlled fan switch
Temperature-Controlled Fan Switch

  • Temperature-controlled fan switch is nothing more than a thermostat that close on a rise in temperature to start the fan motor when the furnace can supply warm air to the structure.

  • The temperature-controlled fan switch must be set correctly in order to maintain the temperature of the air delivered to the structure and prevent overheating the combustion chamber.


Limit switches
Limit Switches

  • Limit switches on heating appliances are basically thermostats that open when an unsafe condition exists in the furnace, such as high furnace temperatures.

  • Limit switches are used in case of flame rollout, which is flame extending outside the combustion chamber or heat exchanger.




Gas heating controls
Gas Heating Controls

  • The basic controls of a gas heating appliance is initiated when a switch, usually a thermostat, closes to call for heat.

  • In a gas heating system this call for heat completes the heating control circuit, starting a chain reaction that results in lighting the burner.

  • There are three basic types of gas burner controls: standing pilots, where the pilot burns continuously; intermittent pilots, where the pilot is automatically lit on a call for heat; and direct ignition, where some method is used to light the main burner upon a call for heat.




Intermittent pilot control system
Intermittent Pilot Control System

  • The intermittent pilot control system must light the pilot and control the main gas valve.

  • The intermittent pilot only when there is a call for heating and remains off when there is no call for heat.

  • There must be some method of igniting the pilot burner


The operational sequence of an intermittent pilot burner control system
The Operational Sequence of an Intermittent Pilot Burner Control System

  • On a call for heat, some modules have a pre-purge cycle that occurs before the spark starts. During this pre-purge cycle, the combustion blower runs to clear the heat exchanger of any unburned gas. This cycle usually lasts 30 to 45 seconds.

  • On a call for heat, the ignition module does a self-check, and if a fail­ure is shown, the ignition won’t start. If the checks are good, the mod­ule begins a safety lockout timing, powers the spark igniter, and opens the solenoid valve so gas can flow to the pilot. The pilot must light within a certain period of time or the module closes the valve.

  • When the pilot lights, current flows from the ignition sensor through the pilot flame to the burner head and then to ground; the ionized pilot flame provides a current path between the rod and burner head, recti­fying the current. Because of the difference in size of the sensor and burner, current flows in only one direction. The current is a pulsating direct or rectified current, and it tells the module that a flame has been established. Ignition stops and the second main gas valve opens, allowing gas to flow to the main burner.

  • As long as this rectified flame current remains above the minimum, the module keeps the main gas valves open. If the current drops below



Direct ignition burner control system
Direct Ignition Burner Control System Control System

  • The direct ignition systems use a spark igniter (direct spark ignition) or a silicon carbide igniter (hot surface ignition) to light the main gas burner directly.

  • Ignition stops after a designated time or when the main burner flame ignition has been properly proved.

  • The typical components of a direct ignition burner control system are the ignition module, igniter, sen­sor, gas control, and other common controls used on any type of gas furnace.


The operational sequence of the direct ignition burner control system
The Operational Sequence of the Direct Ignition Burner Control System

  • On a call for heat, most modules have a pre-purge cycle that occurs before ignition. During this pre-purge cycle, the combustion blower runs to clear the heat exchanger of unburned gas. The cycle usually lasts 30 to 45 seconds.

  • On a call for heat, the ignition module does a self-check, and if a fail­ure is shown, the ignition will not start. If the checks are good, the module begins a safety lockout, powers the igniter, and opens the gas valve.

  • Once ignition starts, the burner must light and ignition must be proved within the safety lockout timing. If the burner does not light, then the ignition stops and the gas valve closes. On a lockout, the system must be manually reset. Many modules allow for several attempts at igni­tion before locking out.


The operational sequence of the direct ignition burner control system1
The Operational Sequence of the Direct Ignition Burner Control System

  • When the flame lights, current flows from the sensor through the ion­ized pilot flame to the burner head and then to ground. The current is a pulsating, direct, or rectified current, and it tells the module that flame has been established. Ignition stops and the burner continues to run.

  • As long as this rectified flame current remains above the minimum, the module keeps the gas valve open. If the current drops below the minimum or becomes unsteady, the module interrupts power to the gas valve, closing the valve and stopping gas flow. The module then performs the start safety check and, if it’s safe, the module attempts ignition again. Figure 13.30 shows a flowchart of the operation of a direct ignition system.



Oil heating controls
Oil Heating Controls Controller

  • The function of an oil burner control system is to turn the heating system on and off in response to the needs of the conditioned space.

  • The control must also safeguard the operation of the heating appliance and oil burner.

  • The primary control is the heart of an oil burner control system and supervises the operation of the oil burner.

  • The primary control must control the oil burner motor, ignition transformer, and oil solenoid valve, if used, upon a call for heat.

  • The primary control must safely control the operation of the oil burner.

  • The primary control must ensure that the burner has lit and that the flame has been proved.

  • Most primary controls will have to be manually reset once a flame failure has occurred in the oil burner.


Cad cell oil burner primary controls
Cad Cell Oil Burner Primary Controls Controller

  • This primary control device cad cell mounted so that it its resistance according to cad cell decreases as the consists of a primary control and a light-sensitive views the oil burner flame.

  • The cad cell changes the intensity of the light. The resistance of the intensity of the light increases




Stack switch oil burner primary controls
Stack Switch Oil Burner Primary Controls Controller

  • The stack switch is a heat-actuated control that uses the stack temperature to indicate that the oil burner has or has not established a flame.

  • A bimetal element inserted into the stack actuates a push rod when the bimetal senses heat, signaling that the flame has been established and breaking the circuit to the safety switch.

  • The correct location and mounting of the stack switch is in the center of the stack or vent in the direct path of the hot flue gases.

  • The stack switch primary control starts the burner and supervises burner operation. When the thermostat calls for heat, the stack switch closes a relay, which starts the burner motor and ignition transformer and opens the oil solenoid, if used.

  • At the same time, the safety switch heater starts to heat. If the oil burner establishes a flame and heat is felt in the stack, the bimetal in the stack switch will open a set of contacts, thus dc-energizing the safety switch heater.

  • Stack switches are available with intermittent ignition, which stops the ignition transformer when the flame has been proven.