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Rocks and Minerals. Science 2201. Grains of sand…. Many ongoing processes constantly change the surface of the globe. Our Earth is cyclic and restless. In other words, ---everything on the earth operates in cycles ---the surface of the earth is constantly changing. Geology.

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rocks and minerals

Rocks and Minerals

Science 2201


Our Earth is cyclic and restless.In other words, ---everything on the earth operates in cycles---the surface of the earth is constantly changing

  • The science that considers the history of the earth, as recorded in rocks
basic structure of the earth
Basic Structure of the Earth
  • 8,000 miles in diameter
  • lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere
  • 4 spherical regions:
    • crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
  • Igneous = formed by the cooling and crystallization of magma (melted rock)
  • Sedimentary = formed from accumulation of weathered material (sediments)
  • Metamorphic = formed from preexisting rocks that have been transformed (changed)
igneous sedimentary metamorphic
Igneous, Sedimentary, Metamorphic

ü    Each type of rock records a different complex past.

ü    Each type of rock can be changed from one form to another and back again.

 geologists call these transformations the “rock cycle”

what are rocks what are minerals

An aggregate or mixture of minerals.

Composition can vary

Most rocks are composed of more than one mineral


Inorganic chemical elements or compounds found in the Earth’s crust.

> 3000 minerals are found in Earth’s crust

What are Rocks? What are Minerals?

·  minerals are the building blocks of rocks

·  differ in composition and properties

See Minerals link on Pacing Guide

  • Weinman Mineral Museum…you gotta go!
moh s hardness scale










Moh’s Hardness Scale
physical properties of minerals
Crystal form


Plane of Cleavage


Color and Streak

Specific Gravity

Physical Properties of Minerals
mineral luster
Mineral Luster
  • the appearance of its surface as it reflects light
  • minerals of the same color can have different luster.
color and streak
Color and Streak
  • Color: red rubies, or blue sapphires, same mineral—corundum (Al2O3)
  • Streak refers to the color of a mineral in its powdered form, example – hematite
specific gravity
Specific Gravity
  • A density measure
  • compares weight of a volume of substance to the weight of the same volume of water
  • Example:
    • cm3 pyrite weighs 5X as much as cm3 water
    • cm3 gold weighs 20X more than cm3 water
igneous rock
Igneous Rock

·  formed by cooling & crystallization

of magma.

·   means “formed by fire”

·  make up about 95% of the earth’s crust

· basalt (ocean floor) and granite (continents) are common examples

igneous rock24

Form at earth surface


Fine texture

Small minerals

Fast cooling


Form inside crust


Course texture

Large minerals

Slow cooling

Igneous Rock
sedimentary rock
Sedimentary Rock

·  formed from the weathered material carried by water, wind, or ice

·  most common rocks in the upper crust

·  cover over 2/3 of the earth’s surface

·  sandstone, shale, and limestone

sedimentary rock27

Broken pieces of rock

Particle deposition at river bottom, beach, or desert


Ex-quartz mineral forms sandstone


Dissolved materials precipitate from solution

Inorganic or organic

Ex-calcite mineral or calcium carbonate from shells forms limestone

Sedimentary Rock
metamorphic rock
Metamorphic Rock
  • ---formed from preexisting rocks (igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic)
  • ----metamorphic means “changing in form”
  • ----marble and slate are common examples
metamorphic rock30

Elongated minerals align in parallel layers

H & P separates minerals into parallel layers

Igneous granite to metamorphic gneiss


Smooth, solid homogenous blend of minerals in rock

H & P recrystallizes rock

Igneous limestone to metamorphic marble.

Metamorphic Rock
metamorphic rock origin
Metamorphic Rock Origin
  • Slate from shale
  • Quartzite from sandstone
  • Marble from limestone
discussion question for review
Discussion Question for Review
  • Chapter 17 Try p. 362-363 Discussion Questions 1-5, 7,9,10.
  • Chapter 18 Try p. 387 Discussion Questions 1,2,3,5.