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Peacemaking: Military Provisions. Treaty of Versailles German Army limited to 100,000 soldiers German Navy limited to 6 warships No submarines permitted No air force permitted. Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau, and Wilson meet at Versailles. Peacemaking: Territorial Provisions.

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peacemaking military provisions
Peacemaking: Military Provisions
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • German Army limited to 100,000 soldiers
    • German Navy limited to 6 warships
    • No submarines permitted
    • No air force permitted

Lloyd George, Orlando, Clemenceau,

and Wilson meet at Versailles

peacemaking territorial provisions
Peacemaking: Territorial Provisions
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Transfer of land to Belgium, France, Denmark and Poland
    • Creation of Polish Corridor
    • Demilitarization of area 30 mi. east of Rhine River
    • New nations
peacemaking guilt and reparations
Peacemaking: Guilt and Reparations
  • Treaty of Versailles
    • Acceptance of ‘War Guilt Clause’: Article 231
    • Payment of Reparations = 132 billion marks
    • Build 200,000 tons of shipping
    • ¼ of merchant marine and fishing fleets
    • ¼ of all coal production

“This isn’t a peace, it’s a

twenty year truce!” –

Marshal Ferdinand Foch

the rise of fascism 1919 24
The Rise of Fascism, 1919-24
  • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
  • Fascio di Combattimento, 1919
  • Squadrismo
  • March on Rome, 1922
  • Matteotti Crisis, 1924

Benito Mussolini

the nazi s first steps 1923
The Nazi’s First Steps, 1923
  • Suspension of reparation payments
  • Occupation of the Ruhr by French and Belgian troops
  • ‘Passive resistance’
  • Hyperinflation
  • Beer Hall Putsch
world economic crises 1923 39
World Economic Crises, 1923-39
  • German Hyperinflation, 1923
  • Dawes Plan
  • Wall Street Crash, 1929
  • The Great Depression

Removing money in laundry baskets

from Berlin bank, 1923

hitler s seizure of power i
Hitler’s ‘Seizure of Power’, I
  • The Great Coalition, 1923-29
  • Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution
  • 1932 Elections
  • Hitler appointed Chancellor, Jan. 1933

Franz von Papen, Hitler and Goebbels

hitler s seizure of power ii
Hitler’s Seizure of Power, II
  • Reichstag Fire, February 27
  • Elections of 5 March
  • Dachau, first concentration camp, 20 March
      • By 1945, estimated 15,000 throughout occupied Europe
  • Enabling Act, 23 March: Hitler made dictator for 4 years. Upon Hindenburg’s death in 1934, assumes title of Führer.

Arrival of prisoners at Dachau,

April 1933

hitler and the jews 1933 38
Hitler and the Jews, 1933-38
  • 1933-5: Exclusion
    • April 1933 Boycott
    • Exclusion of Jews from civil service, law, medicine, schools, armed forces
  • 1935-38: Apartheid
    • Nuremburg Laws
      • Jews lose citizenship
      • Legally defined as separate race
      • Intermarriage and sexual relations illegal

A Stormtrooper stands outside of

a Jewish-owned business, 1933.

the holocaust 1938 45
The Holocaust, 1938-45
  • 1938-41: Violent Persecution Begins
    • Forced repatriation of Polish Jews, Oct. 1938
    • Kristallnacht, Nov. 9, 1938
    • Tightening segregation
  • 1941-45: Holocaust
    • Einsatzgruppen, June 1941
    • Wannsee Conference, January 1942
    • Extermination Camps

Einsatzkommando execution

In the Ukraine

the extermination camps
The Extermination Camps
  • Auschwitz (1.1 million)
  • Belzec (600,000)
  • Chelmno (152,000)
  • Majdanek (200,000)
  • Sobibor (250,000)
  • Treblinka (750,000)
the policy of appeasement
The Policy of Appeasement
  • Remilitarization of the Rhineland, March 1936
  • Anschluss, March 1938
  • Sudetenland Crisis and Munich Conference, Sept. 1938
  • Invasion of Czechoslovakia, March 1939
  • Nazi-Soviet Pact, Aug. 1939
  • Invasion of Poland, Sept. 1939

Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler and Mussolini at the

Munich Conference, September 1938

the second world war 1939 41
The Second World War, 1939-41
  • Great Britain and France declare war, 3 Sep 1939
  • Invasion of Denmark and Norway, April 1940
  • Invasion of France, Belgium, Neth. & Lux., May 1940
  • Armistice with France, June 1940
  • The Battle of Britain (Blitz), Summer 1940

St.Paul’s Cathedral, London

during the Nazi Blitz, 1940

the second world war 1941 43
The Second World War, 1941-43
  • Invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia, April 1941
  • Invasion of USSR, June 1941
  • Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 1941
  • North African Campaign, 1941-3
  • Invasion of Italy, July 1943
  • Siege of Leningrad, July 1941-July 1943
  • Battle of Stalingrad, Nov. 1942-Feb. 1943

German soldier shot crossing the Polish border, 1941

the second world war 1944 5
The Second World War, 1944-5
  • Fall of Rome:June 4, 1944
  • D-Day:June 6, 1944
  • Paris liberated:August 22, 1944
  • Yalta Conference: March 1945
  • Mussolini captured and killed,April 28, 1945
  • Hitler commits suicide,April 30, 1945
  • Germany surrenders:May 8, 1945

The corpses of Mussolini and

his mistress being displayed

in Milan, April 29, 1945

divided europe 1945 9
Divided Europe, 1945-9
  • Yalta Conference: Feb. 1945
  • Roosevelt’s Death: April 12, 1945
  • Potsdam Conference: July 1945
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombed:August 1945
  • Division of Germany: 1947-9

The “Big Three” at Yalta

cold war europe 1945 74
Cold War Europe, 1945-74
  • Soviet control of Eastern Europe, 1947-8: The ‘Iron Curtain’
  • NATO founded, April 1949
  • Soviet A-bomb exploded, August 1949: The nuclear arms race begins
  • Warsaw Pact signed, 1955
  • Sputnik launched, October 1957: The ‘Space Race’ begins

Sputnik is launched, 1957

the crisis of communism 1970 1985
The Crisis of Communism, 1970-1985
  • World Economic Crisis of 1970s
    • OPEC
    • Stagflation
  • Solidarity Movement in Poland, 1980-89
  • Charter ’77 group in Czechoslovakia
  • Leadership Crisis in USSR

Solidarity leader Lech Walesa

the fall of communism in europe 1985 91
The Fall of Communism in Europe, 1985-91
  • Mikhail Gorbachev
    • Perestroika
    • Glasnost
  • Electoral Defeat of Communists in Poland, 1989
  • ‘Velvet Revolution’ in Czechoslovakia, 1989
  • Fall of Berlin Wall, 1989
  • German Reunification, 1990

Demonstrators dismantle the

Berlin Wall, 1989

collapse of the soviet union 1991 2
Collapse of the Soviet Union, 1991-2
  • Boris Yeltsin (1931-)
  • August Coup, 1991
    • Communist Party suspended
    • Pravda outlawed
    • Republics begin to break away
  • U.S.S.R. dissolved on 1 January 1992

Boris Yeltsin defends Russian

Parliament building during the

August Coup, 1991