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DNA:. Genes Control . Development. Physiology. Behavior. Infectious Disease. Inherited Disease. Technology. Drosophila melanogaster. WHY FLIES… 1) Great Genetics 2) Short life span 3) Small Size 4) Small (sequenced!) Genome. Great Genetics!!!. Biochemical Function. Protein.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

DNA:

Genes Control ...

Development

Physiology

Behavior

Infectious Disease

Inherited Disease

Technology

slide3

WHY FLIES…

1) Great Genetics

2) Short life span

3) Small Size

4) Small (sequenced!) Genome

slide4

Great Genetics!!!

Biochemical

Function

Protein

Function

Gene

Phenotype

drosophila s contributions to genetic research
Drosophila’s Contributions to Genetic Research
  • 1910 First mutation: white eyes (T. H. Morgan)
  • 1913 First genetic map showing genes arranged in a linear order (A. H. Sturtevant)
  • 1916 Proof that genes are located on chromosomes (C. B. Bridges)
  • 1927 X-rays cause mutations and chromosomal rearrangements (H. J. Muller)
  • 1934 First physical mapping of a mutation (T.S. Painter)
  • 1975 First physical mapping of a gene (D. S. Hogness)
  • 1980 First comprehensive analysis of mutants that affect animal development
    • (C. Nusslein-Volhard, E. Wieschaus, E. Lewis)

Nobel Prizes

slide23

Homeotic Mutations:

The conversion of one body part into another

Haltere to wing

transformation

slide24

Dominant, gain of function

allele of the Antp gene

conversion

to legs!

Developmental Genetics!

Antennae

slide26

Cancer develops through gradual changes in cell morphology and properties

Normal

Dysplasia

Carcinoma in situ

Malignant carcinoma

slide29

Cyclin Dependent Kinases (cdk) Control Progress Through The Cell Cycle

cyclin B/cdk1

cyclin A/cdk1

cyclin D/cdk4

cyclin A/cdk2

cyclin E/cdk2

slide30

Gene Expression Regulates Cyclin Dependent Kinase Activity During the Cell Cycle (and vice versa) ….

cyclin B/cdk1

cyclin A/cdk1

cyclin D/cdk4

cyclin A/cdk2

cyclin E/cdk2

slide31

Do Flies Get Cancer?

YES! (Sort of…)

St Johnston, Nat Rev Gen 3:176 (2002)

slide32

Flies are like little humans with wings…

http://superfly.ucsd.edu/homophila/

Genes involved in 74% of human diseases, including cancer, can be found in Drosophila

slide33

The Cell Cycle

What About Development?

slide35

Early Drosophila development

occurs in a syncytium

nuclear division cycles
Nuclear Division Cycles

t = 15 min t = 60 min t = 120 min

gfp labeled chromosomes
GFP Labeled Chromosomes*

gas permeable

membrane

cover slip

*Courtesy of Rob Saint, University of Adelaide, Australia