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Using Motivation 3.0 with CDWs. Mary DeCoster, MPH Coordinator for Social and Behavioral Change (SBC) Programs TOPS / Food for the Hungry Tom Davis, MPH Senior Specialist for SBC(TOPS Project) & Chief Program Officer / FH.

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Using Motivation 3.0 with CDWs

Mary DeCoster, MPH

Coordinator for Social and Behavioral Change (SBC) Programs

TOPS / Food for the Hungry

Tom Davis, MPH

Senior Specialist for SBC(TOPS Project) & Chief Program Officer / FH

some questions we will explore
Under what conditions do performance-based incentives work and not work? And what are the dangers of using them indiscriminately?

When should we pay CDWs and when should we use volunteer CDWs?

Some Questions We will Explore
ruler exercise agree disagree
Its important or necessary to use mostly monetary or in-kind incentives to get community-level workers to get things done in our food security programs

(1=Strongly Disagree; 10 = Strongly Agree)

I have the knowledge and skills needed to motivate community-level volunteers to get things done in our food security programs

Ruler Exercise: Agree/Disagree
Kinshasha (amateur, volunteer) Symphony Orchestra:

On YouTube:

Published 2009 by Dan Pink

“…a paradigm-shattering look at what truly motivates us and how we can use that knowledge to work smarter and live better”

Lessons learned for motivating CDWs??

Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us

Click here to view DRIVE video on YouTube:

paired share discussion
Three-minute buzz – with the person next to you (in groups of two or three)

Ask your neighbor:

What stood out for you in this video?

How do you feel about this information?

What might we do differently in light of his findings?

Paired Share -- Discussion
three basic human drives
Biological: Hunger, thirst and copulation (Motivation 1.0)

Extrinsic reward: Reward and punishment delivered by the environment for behaving in certain ways (Motivation 2.0)

Intrinsic reward: The joy/satisfaction of completing a task motivates its completion. (Motivation 3.0)

Three Basic Human Drives

“Satisfaction lies in the effort, not in the attainment; full effort is full victory.” -- Gandhi

motivation 2 0 not so useful for improving performance
Motivation 2.0: Good for unrelenting, routine, mechanical, or boring tasks.

Not as useful when creativity, maximization of performance, quality and commitment are desired.

“Once the task called for even rudimentary cognitive skill, a larger reward led to poorer performance.”

We’ll want to tap into intrinsic motivations … both for paid CDWs and unpaid volunteer CDWs.

Motivation 2.0 … not so useful for improving performance
problems with motivation 2 0 carrots and sticks
What are some of the problems with using “carrot and stick” approaches to motivation?

They can extinguish intrinsic motivation.

They can diminish performance.

They can crush creativity.

Problems with Motivation 2.0 (Carrots and Sticks)
problems with motivation 2 0 carrots and sticks1
They can crowd out good behavior.

They can encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior.

They can become addictive.

They can foster short-term thinking.

Problems with Motivation 2.0 (Carrots and Sticks)
when carrots are sticks are useful
Motivation 2.0 (performance-based incentives) is useful for:When Carrots are Sticks are Useful
  • Tasks that are inherently unpleasant (e.g., cleaning out latrines).
  • Tasks that only require mechanical skills.
  • We need to pay people a baseline wage (but not performance incentives, generally) when a volunteer cannot be expected to do the job.
  • For CDWs, need to also provide basic training, supplies, consumables and supervision
motivation 3 0
Motivation 3.0 relies on:

Giving people (e.g., CDWs) a certain level ofAutonomy … of task (what they do), time (when they do it), team (who they do it with) and technique (how they do it).

Helping people to achieve Mastery (getting better at something that matters to you)

Helping people to discover Purpose in what they do.

Motivation 3.0
using motivation 3 0 with cdws
Volunteers can be counted on to do many things that CDWs do if:

the work load is kept light (e.g., < 8 hours/week),

basic skills are needed, and those skills can be imparted slowly; and

there is a focus on intrinsic rewards such as giving volunteers more autonomy, providing pathways to skills/mastery in what they do, and helping them to discover the purpose associated with their work (e.g., measuring decreases in child deaths).

Using Motivation 3.0 with CDWs

Do something for somebody every day for which you do not get paid. -- Albert Schweitzer

Time Contribution (in hours) of Volunteers and Other Project Staff (FH/Mozambique CG Project) October 2005 – September 2010

Community driven …




84% of the work was done by Care Group Volunteers, and

98% by community members (CGVs + paid local CHWs).

Total value of volunteer time (@$2.98/8hrs) = $904,811

do we need motivation 3 0 for paid cdws
Yes! … required if you want commitment, creativity, and ownership.

Go beyond a wage. Help paid CDWs to:

Do we need Motivation 3.0 for paid CDWs?
  • Have some autonomy(task, time, team, technique),
  • Achieve mastery,
  • Discover purpose in what they do, and
  • Have feelings of achievement, affiliation, extension, influence, control, and growth
small group discussion
Discuss these questions at your tables and choose someone who will report out. (15-20 minutes)

How could we motivate CDWs in our organizations, for better retention and performance?

How would you decide whether a particular food security task should be done by a volunteer or a paid worker?

What would you, as FS implementers, need to be able to use Motivation 3.0 to help make our workers and volunteers more effective and satisfied?

Small Group Discussion
finding one s purpose
This is the true joy in life, the being used for a purpose recognized by yourself as a mighty one; the being a force of nature instead of a feverish selfish clod of ailments and grievances complaining that the world will not devote itself to making you happy. I am of the opinion that my life belongs to the whole community and as long as I live it is my privilege to do for it whatever I can. I want to be thoroughly used up when I die, for the harder I work, the more I live. I rejoice in life for its own sake. Life is no ‘brief candle’ to me. It is sort of a splendid torch which I have a hold of for the moment, and I want to make it burn as brightly as possible before handing it over to future generations.

-- George Bernard Shaw

Finding One’s Purpose
This presentation was made possible by the generous support of the American people through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). The contents are the responsibility of Food for the Hungry and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.