From last time • Pleasure /pain argument • Perceptual relativity argument • Criticism of primary/secondary quality distinction
Indirect Realism In perception we are directly aware of ideas These ideas are caused by external, mind independent objects These ideas also resemble mind independent objects
The example of the coach • Philonous: we can perceive objects indirectly, but only when we have experienced a correlation between the two objects • If I hear a sound, I think a car is coming. This is an indirect perception of a car • But this is not the sort of indirect perception Indirect realism requires
According to indirect realism, we are never aware of material objects directly, all that we are directly aware of are ideas. • So there is no way of correlating the ideas we directly experience, with the supposed material objects
Indirect realism leads to skepticism • Since we cannot correlate the material thing with idea, we cannot justify the belief that there is a material thing that is causing the idea. • Thus indirect realism leads to skepticism about material things.
A metaphysical problem with indirect realism • Ideas are mental things, bodies, by hypothesis, are material. • If ideas are mental, then they cannot resemble something physical. • IF ideas are mental, it is impossible for them to be caused by something physical In other words, the mind/body problem makes indirect realism implausible.
Berkeley’s Master argument • If something is inconceivable it is impossible • IT is impossible to conceive of a material thing without conceiving of it • Therefore mind independent material things are impossible