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Country paper on Classification Workshop. Presented by: Nasir Ahmed MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ( MPND ) STATISTICS SECTION Republic of Maldives. Maldives Coding System.

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Country paper on Classification Workshop

Presented by:

Nasir Ahmed

MINISTRY OF PLANNING AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ( MPND )

STATISTICS SECTION

Republic of Maldives


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Maldives Coding System

  • International classifications systems were first introduced during the 1977 census, to code Industry and Occupation information. There after, international classification systems has been used in coding surveys and census data.


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The following are the classifications used.

  • International Standard Classification of Occupations ( ISCO )

  • International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC )

  • Central Production Classification ( CPC )

  • Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose ( COICOP )

  • International Standard Classification of Education ( ISCED )


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ISIC (version 3.0), ISCO (version…) and CPC (version 1.0) are the widely used two among the classifications. CPC was first introduced for Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 1993. The aim was to record and store the consumer product list from household diary for the use of Consumer Price Index basket. CPC along with ISIC and ISCO have been used in all the surveys carried out by the Ministry of Planning, National Development (MPND). COICOP is also used but not widely.


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At present MPND does not have separate classification systems, but we incorporate some extensions based on the country’s Industry, Occupation, Product and service categories or items. The survey information are coded in detailed levels given in the classifications, for example, CPC codes are mostly 5 digit level but for food items we have made extra two digit level to capture detailed items level.

There are number of difficulties that face we face when using classifications. In ISIC, it is required to code the exact description of the Industry that respondents specified, sometimes more than one related categories or sometimes we do not find an appropriate code hence not else where classified (n.e.c) codes are substituted. Similar problems arise in ISCO.


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  • For example, in Maldives carpenter is a person not specialized but does all sorts of carpentry work, like manufacture of furniture and fixtures. There are different codes, making of doors (ISIC code, 2022), tables (3610), in this case it is hard to give a specific industry code for the carpenter. Under manufacturing category, we face much difficulty since in Maldives we have a local type of “manufacturing industry” but in most cases repair work and small machinery work are undertaken in a smaller scale.

  • In CPC, we found the category descriptions some times too general but lots of items which we come across are too specific. For example: Incase of “dhiyaahakuru” (a local product made out of toddy), for this product there is a 5 digit general code which does not fit this product but we need to identify the exact product.


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The following are some of these examples: specialized but does all sorts of carpentry work, like manufacture of furniture and fixtures. There are different codes, making of doors (ISIC code, 2022), tables (3610), in this case it is hard to give a specific industry code for the carpenter. Under manufacturing category, we face much difficulty since in Maldives we have a local type of “manufacturing industry” but in most cases repair work and small machinery work are undertaken in a smaller scale.

CPC5 CPC7 CPC Description

  • 23110 2311001 Aata flour, aata fuh

  • 23999 2399903 Addu bondi

  • 01240 0124001 Ala, olhu, taro

  • 21690 2169099 Animal or vegetable fats and oils and their fractions, partly or wholly

  • 01349 0134911 Annaaru, pomagranade

  • 23420 2342002 Apollo

  • 01349 0134901 Apple

  • 21560 2156099 Apricot, peach or plum stones and kernels

  • 21530 2153001 Aracanut otherwise preapred

  • 01360 0136003 Aracanut, Foah, fenfoah fresh or dried in raw form

  • 21530 2153001 Aracanut, roasted or otherwise prepared

  • 01360 0136003 Arracanut, fenfoah

  • 01620 0162008 Aseymirus, pepper

  • 01349 0134914 Atha

  • 23160 2316002 Aveli, rice flakes

  • 23150 2315001 Baby cereal foods, cerelac, nestum etc

  • 22910 2291002 Baby foods, milupa etc

  • 22910 2291001 Baby milk powder, enfalac, lactogen, SMA etc

  • 01360 0136001 Badhan, peanuts fresh or dried


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  • Another difficulty that we face is, when we give codes again we have to give four digit codes for these items. So most of the items are not separated and many items come under one code. Other than these problems, giving the Central Production Activities (CPC), International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes we face many other problems too.


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Some of the problems are listed below. we have to give four digit codes for these items. So most of the items are not separated and many items come under one code. Other than these problems, giving the Central Production Activities (CPC), International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes we face many other problems too.

ISIC ISIC DISCRIPTION

  • 1722 Roanuveshun - Hand made rope using processed coconut husk.

  • 2029 fanviyun - Making mat etc. using coconut leaves.

  • 1554 Ruherun (kaashi elhun) - Climbing the coconut tree to get the fruits

  • 1554 Raabeylun - Getting toddy from coconut tree

  • 1549 Havaadhu hedhun - Making spices (different verities)

  • 1554 Juice petty hedhun - Making an ice (solid) drink made out of water, sugar, Milk & essence.

  • 1554 Lolly hedhun - Making an ice (solid) drink like lolly pop made out of Water, sugar, milk & essence.

  • 1549 Killi thelhun - Making a mixture of cloves areca nut, Beatle leaf, Cinnamon and sugar for chewing

  • 1549 Hedhibileh hedhun - Sliced areca nut with Beatle leaves, cloves etc for Chewing.

  • 1549 Foah koshun - Slicing areca nuts.

  • 2423 Divehi beys - Traditional medicine.


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CPC CPC DISCRIPTION we have to give four digit codes for these items. So most of the items are not separated and many items come under one code. Other than these problems, giving the Central Production Activities (CPC), International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes we face many other problems too.

  • 23210 Diyaa hakuru - past made out of toddy

  • 35290 Divehi beyhuge echihi - Ingredients used to make traditional medicine.

  • 38240 Ranriheege masakkath kurun - Goldsmith

  • 36320 Sathari - Polythene sheet (canvas used as a shelter in dhoni’s).


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Thank You we have to give four digit codes for these items. So most of the items are not separated and many items come under one code. Other than these problems, giving the Central Production Activities (CPC), International Standard Industrial Classification of all Economic Activities (ISIC) and International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) codes we face many other problems too.

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