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Short Stories

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  1. Short Stories English 9 A

  2. “The Sniper” PG 4 • Set in Dublin, Ireland, 1920, during a civil war. Map • Ireland was under English rule. • Republicans wanted complete freedom. • Free Staters wanted a compromise with English. What do you know about civil wars?

  3. Irony • Irony is the difference between what we expect and what actually happens • The election is won by an underdog. • The shortest kid is the best center in basketball. • The dentist has fillings.

  4. Verbal Irony • Verbal irony is when someone says one thing and means another. • When you tell someone you like their new shirt when really you don’t. • Verbal irony is also called sarcasm.

  5. Situational Irony • Situational irony is when a situation turns out to be totally opposite of what we expect • The police chief’s son turns out to be a thief. • The great and powerful Wizard of Oz turned out to be a little man behind a curtain

  6. Dramatic Irony • When the audience knows something that the characters do not • Often played out on TV or in plays and the movies • Little Red Riding Hood – The audience or reader knows the wolf is in the bed, but Little Red Riding Hood doesn’t

  7. Sniper - Assignment • What is the most ironic event in the story? • What type of irony is it? • What other ironic events happen in the story? • What types of irony are they? • Is the ending “good”? Write a paragraph defending your answer.

  8. “The Most Dangerous Game”pg 12 • Predict: What is the most dangerous game? What type of conflict is going to happen in this story? • This story is filled with conflict and, of course, danger.

  9. Conflict • Conflict is the struggle or clash between opposing characters, forces, or emotions. • The conflict drives the action of the story.

  10. Types of Conflict • Many works have both internal and external conflict, and an external conflict often leads to internal problems. • External Conflict – A character struggles against an outside force, which may be another character, society as a whole, or something in nature. • Internal Conflict – A struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions within a single character.

  11. Plot • A series of related events that make up a story or drama. CONFLICT! Climax Rising Action (Complication) Falling Action Exposition (Basic Situation) Resolution (Denouement)

  12. Elements of Plot • Basic Situation – The opening of the story, where the characters and their conflict are usually introduced. • Complication (Rising Action) – The main character takes some action to resolve the conflict and meets more problems and complications. • Climax – The most important and exciting part of the story. The entire story hinges on the outcome. • Resolution – Closes the story.

  13. MDG - Assignment • What were your predictions? How close were you? • Give two examples of internal conflict, and two examples of external conflict. • Give an example of something ironic from the story. • Answer questions 1,4,6,7 from the book. WR – Two paragraphs – Who wins? Support your answer with examples from the text.

  14. Interlopers – Pg. 95 http://www.flickr.com/photos/23656277@N00/3140160452/sizes/l/

  15. Setting – Putting Us There • Setting – Time and place of a story or play. • One main purpose of the setting is to provide background – a place for the characters to live and act.

  16. Atmosphere • Mood or feeling in a work of literature. Atmosphere is usually created through descriptive details and evocative language.

  17. Images • To create a effective settings, a writer must use vivid images. • Images are words the cause a response from our senses (sight, smell, touch, hearing, and even taste). • The story comes to life when you combine your imagination with the writer’s details.

  18. Interlopers - Assignment Answer questions 2, 3, 4, and 6. WR - Write a half of a page that describes what happens next in the story.

  19. “Thank You M’am” pg 120 • People in life and in fiction tend to show their true character when they are in stressful situations. In this story, two characters have a tense encounter. The writer lets their actions and their words (or their silences) tell us about the kind of people they are – or could be.

  20. Character – The Actors in the Story • Character – An individual in a story, poem or play. Always has human traits, even if the character is an animal.

  21. Characterization– Ways to develop characters • Writers portray the personalities of characters through a variety of methods. • Direct Characterization – The author directly describes the character’s traits or special qualities. • “Bob is a very happy person.”

  22. Indirect Characterization • Indirect Characterization – The author indirectly describes the character’s traits or special qualities, through: • Appearance • Actions • Speech • Thoughts • How people respond to the character. • With this method, a writer shows rather than tells the reader what the character is like.

  23. Types of Characters • Flat Characters • Round Characters

  24. Flat • A flat character has no depth. Such a character has one or two key personality traits and can be described in a single sentence.

  25. Round • A round character is fleshed out. He or she is more complex and have depth. Flat and round characters are both used in literature.

  26. “Thank You M’am” -Assignment • Answer questions 1,2,4,5, and 6. • Write a newspaper article about the events from the story. • Must be at least one page long. • Include at least two quotes from fake interviews. • Have a catchy headline • Include the five W’s (What, who, when, where and why.)

  27. “The Gift of the Magi” pg 202 • The Magi that the title refers to are the three “wise men” that brought gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh to the infant Jesus. These are traditionally thought of as the first Christmas gifts.

  28. Quick Write • If you could save one item from a disaster – a fire, a flood, an earthquake – what would it be? In a few sentences, describe your most cherished possession, and tell why you treasure it.

  29. Predictions • Based on the word cloud at the right, what predictions can you make about this story? Who or what is the story going to be focused on?

  30. Verbal Irony • Verbal irony is when someone says one thing and means another. • When you tell someone you like their new shirt when really you don’t. • Verbal irony is also called sarcasm.

  31. Situational Irony • Situational irony is when a situation turns out to be totally opposite of what we expect • The police chief’s son turns out to be a thief. • The great and powerful Wizard of Oz turned out to be a little man behind a curtain

  32. Dramatic Irony • When the audience knows something that the characters do not • Often played out on TV or in plays and the movies • Little Red Riding Hood – The audience or reader knows the wolf is in the bed, but Little Red Riding Hood doesn’t

  33. “The Gift of the Magi” - Assignment • What is the main point of the last paragraph? • Answer questions 3, 4, 5 and 6. • What do you think this little story has to say about our consumer society today? Do you think that we look at love and money as being equal? Think about all of the money spent on things, advertising, and the value placed on possessions. Do you think this attitude is right or wrong? Write a paragraph defending your answer.

  34. “The Necklace” – pg 220 • All of us, at one time or another, have felt that the grass is greener on the other side of the fence – in other words, that someone else’s life is better than our own. We believe that having what someone else has will make us happy – until we experience the unexpected results of envy. • Briefly write about a time you felt envy.

  35. Point of View • Every story has a voice – a narrator whose view is the one we share. • Omniscient • First Person • Third Person

  36. Omniscient • The narrator is all-knowing and is not a character in the story. • Never refers to himself or herself with “I”. • He or she can tell us everything about every character.

  37. First Person • The narrator is a character in the story. • The narrator talks to us using “I”. • He or she can only tell us personal thoughts and feelings, what he or she sees, or what he or she is told by other characters.

  38. Third Person • The narrator is not a character in the story, but focuses on the thoughts and emotions of one character. • The narrator does not refer to himself or herself with “I”. • The narrator can only tell us the thoughts and feelings of that one character. • Examples on Page 218 and 219

  39. “The Necklace” Assignment • Answer questions 1, 2, 3, and 4 from the book. • What point of view is the story told from? Support your answer with a quote from the story. • Fill in the following table.

  40. “The Cask of Amontillado” Pg 233 • This story is a story of revenge. • Can revenge have the same effect as envy? • Can revenge ever be sweet?

  41. Point of View Continued • Omniscient • First Person • Third Person • An unreliable narrator is someone who is not always aware of what is happening, or someone who is deliberately not telling the whole truth.

  42. “Cask of Amontillado” Assignment • Answer questions 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 from the book. • Complete the “Reading Check” from the book.

  43. “The Scarlet Ibis” Pg 314 • This story is set in the American South during the early 1900’s. http://www.damisela.com/zoo/ave/otros/ciconi/ibis/ibis.jpg

  44. Theme • Theme – Some idea or insight about human life and human nature that gives meaning to the story. • Theme is unseen and usually unstated, yet it is vital. • Theme can be stated in at least on full sentence.

  45. What Theme is NOT • Theme is not what happens (the plot), or what it is about (the subject). • The subject can be stated in one or two words. • The theme is not the same as a moral, which is a rule of conduct. The theme is usually a much more complex and original revelation about life.

  46. How to Find the Theme • One of the best ways to discover theme is to ask how the protagonist has changed during the course of the story. • Often, what this character has learned about life is the truth the writer also wants to reveal to the reader. • Remember to think critically about the theme and determine whether the author’s theme is valid, or if he or she are trying to force their view on the reader.

  47. “The Scarlet Ibis” Assignment • Answer questions 2, 3, 4, and 5 from the book. • Complete the Reading Check from the book.