An introduction to including students with disabilities For teaching artists The john f. kennedy center for the performing arts
Essential knowledge and practiceTo fully include students with disabilities Special Education Law Characteristics of Disabilities Accommodations and Modifications Universal Design for Learning
Special Education: Supporting students with Disabilities Provides needed supports to students with disabilities so that they can be successful in learning and achieving.
All students must receive a free and appropriate public education. (FAPE) Special Education law IDEA
Special Education Process Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Requires highly structured and monitored levels of support for students with disabilities in schools. Identification of students as eligible for services under IDEA is a process which includes testing Completion of the process might result in a student having an identification (not diagnosis) of a particular disability and be eligible for services.
Services Identification Individual Education Plan IEP Review/ Revise Yearly Re-evaluate for eligibility Every 3 years
IEP Team LEA (represents public agency) Parents Student General Education Teacher Special Education Teacher Others per Parental Request Related Services
The IEP PLOP TransitionPlan Services Goals Accommodations
The Special Education Continuum of Services Supports are provided to students in the Least Restrictive Environment
The special education continuum of services Special Education General Education Teacher as resource Teacher Special Education General Education Teacher co-teaches Teacher Special Education Teacher in Self-Contained Class
The Special Education Continuum of Services Paraprofessional teachers might provide assistance in any of the class configurations.
The Special Education Continuum of Services Students attend schools providing specialized services for students with similar disabilities .
Characteristics of disabilities What is disability?
Disabilities Identified by IDEA • Autism • Deaf-blindness • Deafness • Developmental delay • Emotional disturbance • Hearing impairment • Intellectual disability
Disabilities Identified by Idea • Multiple disabilities • Orthopedic impairment • Other health impairment • Specific learning disability • Speech or language impairment • Traumatic brain injury • Visual impairment, including blindness
Percentages of disabilities in U. S. schools* Percentage of students age 6 through 21, served under IDEA, per disability category, Fall 2006
*Source • 30th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2008. • From: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, US Department of Education • http://www2.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2008/parts-b-c/index.html
Specific Learning Disabilities Listen to Gerald’s story
Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD or LD) • General term for specific kinds of learning problems • Most often affects reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, doing math • One in every five people has a learning disability • Not otherwise expected • Self-aware
Speech or language impairments Listen to Cynthia’s story
Speech or language impairments • Expressive language • Difficulties being understood • Non-verbal • Receptive language • Not understand what is said • Influences ability to learn to read and write and communicate orally
Intellectual disabilities Listen to Roy’s story
Intellectual disabilities* • Significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical skills, which are apparent prior to age 18. *www.aaidd.org/intellectualdisabilitybook/content
Emotional Disturbance Listen to William’s story
Emotional Disturbance • Condition with one or more of the following, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: • Inability to learn • that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors • Inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships • Inappropriate behavior or feelings • under normal circumstances • Unhappiness or depression • General pervasive mood • Symptoms or fears • associated with personal or school problems
Autism spectrum disorder Listen to Carrie’s story
Autism Spectrum Disorder • Developmental disability, evident before age 3 • Broad range of differences • Significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction • Adversely affects educational performance • Repetitive activities • Resistance to change • Unusual responses to sensory experiences • Tendency to not understand abstractions
Twice Exceptional Listen to Amanda’s story
Twice Exceptional • Student who has a disability label (needs an IEP) and a giftedness label. Examples: • Learning disability and giftedness • Autism and giftedness
sources • National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities www.nichcy.org • American Association of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities www.aaidd.org • Smith, D. D. (2001). Introduction to Special Education: Teaching in an Age of Opportunity. Allyn and Bacon: Boston.
Challenges across disabilities • Physical/gross motor challenges • Physical/fine motor challenges • Hearing impairments • Visual impairments • Communication challenges • Reading challenges and non-readers • Sensory challenges • Cognitive processing challenges
You can request from teachers Are there students who require modifications or accommodations? If so, which students? What accommodations or modifications do you use?
Physical/gross motor challengesSample accommodations • Allow students to interpret movements, and character gestures, in ways they are able. • Allow students more breaks if stamina is a constraint. • Students in wheelchairs or scooters can move to the beat or work with a partner in ways that work best for them.
Physical/fine motor challengessample accommodations • Provide wider/thicker writing and drawing tools, pencil grips. • Provide an anchor for paper, or a slant board. • Provide a modified mouse. • Allow students to give verbal or gestural directions if not able to manipulate objects.
Hearing impairmentssample accommodations • Use sign language or an interpreter. • Provide all instructions in writing and/or pictures, either on the board or in a handout. • Minimize extraneous sounds in and outside of the classroom. • Provide adequate lighting in the classroom, so students can read lips, sign language, and non-verbal gestures. • Allow students to feel the musical pulse through sympathetic vibrations – amplify vibrations if possible.
Visual impairmentssample accommodations • Provide directions and other written materials in Braille or large print. • Provide verbal directions and verbal descriptions of pictures. • Provide access to text-to-speech computer programs. • Provide a tactile environment, with a variety of supplies and manipulatives.
Communication challengessample accommodations • Provide visual cues. • Responses can be physically demonstrated, written, or drawn. • Use student’s preferred communication assistive technology. • Allow students to perform the action while another student narrates.
Reading challenges and non-readers: sample accommodations • Provide verbal directions coupled with written directions. • Provide other visual cues and pictures coupled with written material. • Provide concept maps or graphic organizers. • Pair students with students who can read when using scripts.
Sensory challengessample accommodations • Prepare students in advance, using a picture or written schedule. • Provide area with reduced activity, away from other students if needed. • Provide clear step-by-step directions. • Allow space for students to move around and take breaks as needed. • Minimize loud sounds, bright lights, and chaotic group activity.
Cognitive processing challengessample accommodations • Simplify directions. • Speak in short and concise sentences. • Check for understanding through eye contact and ask to repeat your directions. • Use accommodations listed for reading, communication, and sensory challenges.