Infections of the respiratory tract
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Infections of the Respiratory Tract. Dr. Raid Jastania. Infections of the Respiratory Tract. Upper Respiratory Tract Lower Respiratory Tract Bacterial, Viral, Fungal, T.B, Parasitic Most URT infections are viral Most LRT infections are bacterial. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections.

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Infections of the respiratory tract1
Infections of the Respiratory Tract

  • Upper Respiratory Tract

  • Lower Respiratory Tract

  • Bacterial, Viral, Fungal, T.B, Parasitic

    • Most URT infections are viral

    • Most LRT infections are bacterial

Upper respiratory tract infections
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Common cold (Acute coryza)

    • Viral infection of URT

    • Organisms:

      • Rhinoviruses: Coronaviruses, Enteroviruses, Adenoviruses, Respiratory syncytial virus)

      • Influenza A and B

      • Croup (Parainfluenza 1,2,3)

Upper respiratory tract infections1
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

  • Tonsillitis (mostly bacterial)

  • Otitis media (mostly bacterial)

  • Epiglottitis

  • Laryngitis

  • Laryngotrachiobronchitis

  • Bronchitis

  • Bronchiolitis

  • Pneumonia


  • Pneumonia is inflammation of the lung (lower respiratory tract) caused mainly by infection.

    • Pneumonia can be caused by Bacterial infection and less commonly by other organisms eg. Viruses, Fungi

    • The term Pneumonia is sometimes used to indicated inflammation of lungs due to other causes eg. Including interstitial lung disease (interstitial pneumonia)

Types of pneumonia
Types of Pneumonia

  • Different ways of classification

    • Problematic, confusing

    • Classification is Based on

      • etiology,

      • anatomic site involved,

      • clinical presentation,

      • pathological type of inflammation

Types of pneumonia1
Types of Pneumonia

  • One of the classification divides pneumonia into:

    • Primary (community-acquired)

    • Secondary

    • Others

Types of pneumonia2
Types of Pneumonia

  • One of the classification divides pneumonia into:

    • Primary (community-acquired)

      • Typical pneumonia

        • Lobar pneumonia

        • Bronchopneumonia

      • Atypical pneumonia

    • Secondary

      • Aspiration pneumonia

      • Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia

      • Pneumonia in immunosuppression

    • Others:

      • Chronic pneumonia

      • Necrotizing pneumonia/Supporative pneumonia/Lung Abscess

Risk of pneumonia
Risk of Pneumonia

  • Underlying disease

    • COPD

    • Heart failure

    • Diabetes

  • Immunodeficiency

  • Absent splenic function (sickle cell disease)

Clinical presentation
Clinical Presentation

  • Fever, rigor, malaise, weakness, vomiting, loss of appetite, headache

  • Cough with sputum

  • Dyspnea

  • Chest pain, pleuritic pain

  • Sick, ill , distressed

  • High respiratory rate >30 / mint

  • In lobar pneumonia: localized area of dullness on percussion, increased tactile fremitus, bronchial breath sounds, and crepitation, pleural rub


  • Common in lower lobes and right middle lobe

  • In Lobar pneumonia: there is a localized area of inflammation

  • Stages:

    • Congestion

      • Vascular congestion, edema, few neutrophils

    • Red hepatization

      • Fibrin, RBC, neutrophils in alveolar spaces

    • Gray hepatization

      • Fibrin, RBC lysis

    • Resolution

Infections of the respiratory tract

  • Bronchopneumonia

    • Inflammation of the bronchi and bronchioles with collapse of the distal airspaces

    • Multiple, patchy bilateral small infiltrates

    • Affect lower lobes usually

Outcome and complications
Outcome and complications

  • Resolution

  • Fibrosis

  • Abscess

  • Empyema

  • Dissemination of infection

    • Meningitis, arthritis, endocarditis


  • CBC

  • Arterial blood gases

  • Radiological exam: chest x-ray

  • Sputum exam and culture

  • Nose and throat swabs

  • Blood culture

  • Serological tests

Infections of the respiratory tract

  • Pneumonia: Features of different organisms (community-acquired pneumonia)

    • Strep. Pneumoniae

      • commonest

    • Staph. Aureus

      • Common following viral infection

      • Risk of complications: abscess

      • Common in IV drug abusers

    • Legionella

      • Legionnaire’s disease, epidimics

      • Grow in water reservoir, humidifiers

      • People with heat disease, renal disease, immunosuppressed

      • Presentation with GIT symptoms, mental confusion

    • Hemophilus influenzae

      • Common in COPD, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis

    • Klebsiella

      • Chronic alcoholics and malnourished persons

Primary community acquired pneumona atypical pneumonia

Primary, Community-Acquired Pneumona (community-acquired pneumonia)Atypical Pneumonia

Atypical pneumonia
Atypical Pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Viruses, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia

  • Fever and malaise precede the respiratory symptoms by few days

  • Severe headache, malaise, anorexia

  • No localized sings on chest exam, No consolidation on chest x-ray

  • Spleen may be enlarged

  • WBC normal, cultures negative

  • No improvement with Penicillin

Infections of the respiratory tract

  • Atypical Pneumonia (community-acquired) (community-acquired pneumonia)

    • Mycoplasma

      • Sporadic or epidemics

    • Viruses

      • Influenza, Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, measles, chicken pox

    • Chlamydia

Atypical pneumonia1
Atypical pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Morphology:

    • Patchy or involve whole lobe

    • Inflammation is confined to the alveolar walls

    • Widening of alveolar walls by edema, mononuclear cell infiltration (lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages)

Secondary pneumonia

Secondary Pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

Infections of the respiratory tract

  • Secondary pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

    • Aspiration pneumonia

    • Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia

    • Pneumonia in immunosuppression

Secondary pneumonia1
Secondary Pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Pre-existing disease of lung or factors increasing the risk of infection

    • Low virulence organisms: Hemophilus infleunzae, viruses, fungi

    • Anaerobic bacteria

    • Gram negative bacteria

    • Staph aureus

    • All the others in commuity-acquired

Aspiration pneumonia
Aspiration Pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Aspiration of gastric contents

  • During surgery, anesthesia, surgery of tonsils, dental work

  • Infection following Aspiration of vomitus in coma, anesthesia, or sleep

  • Ineffective coughing (post operative)

  • Can result in severe hemorrhage in lungs

  • Chemical injury + infection (Anaerobic)

  • Destruction of lung parenchyma with cavitations

Nosocomial pneumonia
Nosocomial Pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Patients admitted to hospital

  • Organisms

    • Same as community acquired and

    • Gram-negative (Klebsiella, E.coli, Pseudomonas)

    • Staph. Aureus

Pneumonia in immunosuppression
Pneumonia in Immunosuppression (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Congenital or acquired

  • AIDS, Immunosuppression

  • Humoral and Cellular immunity

  • Infection by

    • Pneumocystis carinii

    • Gram negative bacteria

    • The common bacteria

    • Opportunistic pathogens: CMV, Herpes, Aspergillus, TB, mycobacteria

Lung abscess
Lung Abscess (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Suppurative pneumonia

  • Necrotizing pneumonia

  • Cavity

  • Localized suppurative necrosis

Lung abscess1
Lung Abscess (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Mechanisms:

    • Aspiration of infective material: teeth, tonils, coma, alcoholics

    • Aspiration of gastric conetnets

    • Complication of necrotizing pneumonia

    • Bronchial obstruction

    • Septic emboli

    • Hematogenous spread

Lung abscess2
Lung Abscess (community-acquired pneumonia)

  • Morphology

    • Cavity 1-2mm to 5-6 cm

    • Filled with pus, cellular debris

    • Surrounded by fibrosis and chronic inflammation

    • Aspiration tend to involve the right lung

    • May rupture in airways resulting in Air-fluid levels

    • May rupture in pleura resulting in pneumothorax and empyema